Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a complication following transfusion of blood products and is potentially a life-threatening adverse event of transfusion. The first case of fatal pulmonary edema following transfusion was reported in the 1950s. In recent time, TRALI has developed from an almost unknown transfusion reaction to the most common cause of transfusion related major morbidities and fatalities. A clinical definition of TRALI was established in 2004, based on acute respiratory distress which has temporal association with transfusion of blood components. In 2008 a distinction between classic and delayed syndrome was proposed. However, pathophysiology of TRALI still remains controversial. A number of different models were proposed to explain the pathogenesis. The two, presently most accepted models, are not mutually exclusive. The first is the antibody mediated model and the second is the two-event model.
In this review article the definition of TRALI, patient predisposition, treatment, prevention and reporting guidelines are examined. The current knowledge on the topic TRALI is summarized.
Key words: transfusion, acute lung injury