The neonate must make a transition after birth from intrauterine continuous transplacental supply of oxygen and glucose to different extra uterine conditions. In healthy neonate the period of adaptation almost finished in the perinatal period and newborn can be safely discharged after this time. Retrospective study in the NICU, Clinical Hospital Osijek, during the year 2016 was done. Almost 26% of neonates were admitted in NICU because of the prolonged adaptation to extra uterine life. It was their main diagnosis. The majority of them have been polycytemic, had early jaundice and a part of them had bradycardia. Mother’s illnesses as a possible cause of prolonged neonatal adaptation were found in 21.7%. About 58.3% of newborns with prolonged adaptation have had problems during mother’s pregnancy and delivery. Hypertrophic as well as hypotrophic neonates were risk neonates for prolonged postnatal adaptation, as well as newborns gender. Mode of delivery takes a big role in the neonatal adaptation. Induction and augmentation of the labor acts as a possibly stress factor. Main symptoms among those newborns were: plethora, cyanotic crises, bradicardia, dystonia, irritability, jaundice and respiratory distress. Most of the investigated newborns need oxygen 6-10 days. The majority of them stay in the hospital up to 10 days. Prolonged adaptation has almost equally been found in the first, second and third pregnancy.
Key words: neonatal adaptation, perinatal stress, pregnancy complications, delivery mode, induction and augmentation of labor, polycythemia, bradicardia