Volume 3 Supplement 1

Analgesia and sedation in hemodynamic unstable patient (Views : 10919 times)


Pain, restlessness, tension and delirium are almost always encountered while treating hemodynamic unstable critical patients in the intensive care units. Usually in critical patients, the evaluation of the nature and pain intensity (VAS scale) are often impossible. During the last 10 years intense nociceptor somatic and visceral post operative pain is believed to be the most crucial factor in the development of endocrine and neurohumoral disorders, within the postoperative period. Chronic post operative pain is appearing often (30%-40%), with great influence on the quality of patients life. The modern principal in treating acute pain is the use of multimodal balanced analgesia approach, which is individually catered with drug and dose for each patient. Modern systemic analgesia is understood to be the continuous use of opiates or opioids, titrated towards pain intensity, with a minimum number of complications even in hemodynamic unstable patients. The combined use of opioids with NSAID and paracetamol reduces the overall dosage of opioids by 20% - 30% and therefore significantly contributes to hemodynamic and respiratory stability. Effective and safe epidural analgesia in hemodynamic unstable patients can be optimized by simultaneous use of various drugs with different mechanisms of action (local anaesthetic, opioid, adrenalin, ketamin). The accepted concept of analgosedation in critical patients is understood to be the use of short acting drugs (fentanyl, sufentanil, remifentanil, midazolam, propofol) in which drug dosage can be quickly adjusted in respect to the present clinical state of the patient.

Key words: acute postoperative pain, multimodal balanced analgesia, analgesia drugs


Anesthetic management in awake craniotomy (Views : 24199 times)


Resection of brain tumors may cause neurological sequelae, according to the site and size of the brain tissue removed. Awake craniotomy has been proposed as a surgical approach to satisfy criteria of radical surgery while minimizing eloquent brain damage. The most critical aspect of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate patient comfort, analgesia, immobility and cooperation during a long surgical operation, ensuring in the meanwhile the safety, control and maintenance of vital functions. Apart from pharmacological, surgical, technical knowledge and skillfulness, the ability to maintain close psycho-emotional
contact and support with the patient throughout the operation is a fundamental task that the anesthesiologist has to pursue for the operation to be successfully managed.
This review summarizes the current opinion on anesthetic management of patients undergoing awake craniotomy.

Key words: anesthesia, awake craniotomy, brain mapping, brain tumor, neuro-oncology


Clinical Applications of Capnography (Views : 15396 times)


This article gives a short review of the basic definitions of capnography and its use. The introduction gives an overview of the historical development of this procedure. Technical features of the method are presented, followed by several definitions for understanding the basic terms needed to realize the applications of capnography. The last section is a descriptive part that explains the most important clinical applications of capnography, the strengths and limitations of this method. This article distinguishes capnography applications as a single procedure and its benefits as a complimentary procedure.

Key words: capnography, monitoring, ventilation, end-tidal CO2


Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates and children experiences of a multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit (Views : 22939 times)


Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation ECMO was applied in 18 patients. All children had deep hypoxia and 80% probability of dying. Average duration of ECMO in newborns was 131 hours, and in older patients 253 hours. Seven patients were discharged from the intensive care unit (late survivors), 5 of them are in perfect somatic and mental condition.

Key words: extracorporeal membra-nous oxygenation, neonate, child


Hemodynamic changes in infective endocarditis (Views : 5953 times)


Hemodynamic disturbances in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) are complex and might be consequences of various pathogenic processes. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major contributor of hemodynamic derangements, but since IE is often a septic disease, reversible myocardial dysfunction as well as septic shock might sometimes dominate or represent additional contributing factors of disturbed hemodynamics. The major cause of CHF is malfunction of affected valves. It occurs with an incidence of 32 % and is often severe. This is why CHF is the most important risk factor associated with poor patient outcome. Results of the project 'International Collaboration on Endocarditis' related to the characteristics of CHF in patients with IE are presented.

Key words: infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, sepsis, Staphylococcus aureus




Most Accessed Articles

Original Articles


Abstract Introduction. The contribution of tracheotomy in comparison to intubation in patients on the resuscitation ward ...

Clinical s

Abstract Elevated intraabdominal pressure (IAP) has been claimed to play a role in abdominal compartment syndrome. ...


Abstract Objectives. We examined the relationship between partial end-tidal CO2 (pet) and mean arterial pressure in ...

Case Reports

Severe barium sulphate aspiration: a report of two cases and review of the literature

Abstract Aspiration of barium sulphate is a well-recognized complication, occurring accidentally during examinations of the upper gastrointestinal system using contrast media. Rarely, large amounts of barium sulphate are inadvertently aspirated into ...

Pulmonary hypertension leading to right heart failure in a patient with IgA gammapathy

Abstract Amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of amorphous, extracellular, insoluble fibrillar protein in various tissues of the body. Pulmonary hypertension usually occurs in the last stages of ...

Myotubular myopathy associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as a cause of prolonged ventilat

Keywords: myotubular myopathy, muscle biopsy, genetic analysis hypoxic-ischemic ...

Review Articles

Venous oximetry

Abstract Tissue hypoxia is the central pathophysiological process in shock and an important co-factor in the development of organ dysfunction. Hemodynamic parameters, usually used to assess the perfusion of organs and ...

Pediatric Shock

Abstract Millions of children die of shock due to various etiologies each year. Shock is a state of circulatory dysfunction where the metabolic demands of the tissue cannot be met by ...

Inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal: a practical approach

Abstract Alcohol intake contributes directly or indirectly to 15 to 20% of medical problems in primary care or an inpatient setting. It is estimated that approximately 500,000 episodes of withdrawal will ...

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