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Signa Vitae

Journal of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

Extravascular lung water index as an indicator of lung injury in septic patients

Abstract

Introduction. Transpulmonary thermodilution using PiCCO (Pulse-induced Contour Cardiac Output) is a standard minimally invasive method used for haemodynamic monitoring. Objectives. The goal of this paper is to examine the correlation and dynamics of the ExtraVascular Lung Water Index (EVLWI) as an indicator of acute lung injury in septic patients who underwent major abdominal surgery. Two groups of patients were selected: the ones with ALI (Acute Lung Injury): ALI patient group, and the ones without ALI: non-ALI patient group. A correlation between EVLWI and other haemodynamic and respiratory data in both groups were analyzed.

Materials and methods. The study included 48 patients. Throughout the seven-day period EVLWI, GEDVI (Global End-Diastolic Volume Index), ITBVI (IntraThoracic Blood Volume Index), CI (Cardiac Index), SVRI (Systemic Vascular Resistance Index) were measured in both groups using PiCCO monitoring over 8-hour intervals as well as heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum albumin concentration, PaCO2 (arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide), PaO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen), PaO2/FiO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio, lung compliance, lung resistance and ScvO2 (central venous oxygen saturation). All patients were analgosedated, intubated, mechanically ventilated, in sinus cardiac rhythm. Circulatory unstable patients had vasoactive support and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores calculated. Ventilator settings and dosage of vasoactive drugs were kept constant during the study.

Results. EVLWI was significantly higher in ALI patients group compared to non-ALI patients group. In patients with ALI group 11/22 patients died (50%), in the non-ALI patients group 6/26 patients died (23%). EVLWI was significantly higher in patients that died compared to ones who survived.

Conclusion. EVLWI is a good indicator of early acute lung injury in surgical patients with sepsis.

Key words: extravascular lung water index, acute lung injury, PiCCO monitoring, sepsis

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Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury: A severe case triggered with anti-HLA class II antibodies in the recipient

Abstract

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious clinical syndrome associated with the transfusion of plasma-containing blood components. The classic TRALI syndrome is characterized by the suddenly onset of respiratory failure within 2-6 hrs of the transfusion of a blood product, generally transient, resolves within 48-96 hrs spontaneously, and has a better prognosis. Nonetheless there is an expanded definition of TRALI syndrome up to 72 hrs, which is called delayed TRALI. The potential causes of TRALI can be explained by two distinct mechanism including the anti-leukocyte antibodies in donor plasma or in recipient plasma with the reverse mechanism, and biological response modifiers in susceptible individuals. This report highlights the succesful management of a classic TRALI case that was seen approximately two hours after the transfusion of a packed red blood cell and triggered with anti-HLA class II antibodies in the recipient with reverse mechanism accompanied by neutropenia together.

Key words: transfusion, acute lung injury, transfusion related acute lung injury, anti HLA antibodies

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Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)

Abstract

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a complication following transfusion of blood products and is potentially a life-threatening adverse event of transfusion. The first case of fatal pulmonary edema following transfusion was reported in the 1950s. In recent time, TRALI has developed from an almost unknown transfusion reaction to the most common cause of transfusion related major morbidities and fatalities. A clinical definition of TRALI was established in 2004, based on acute respiratory distress which has temporal association with transfusion of blood components. In 2008 a distinction between classic and delayed syndrome was proposed. However, pathophysiology of TRALI still remains controversial. A number of different models were proposed to explain the pathogenesis. The two, presently most accepted models, are not mutually exclusive. The first is the antibody mediated model and the second is the two-event model.

In this review article the definition of TRALI, patient predisposition, treatment, prevention and reporting guidelines are examined. The current knowledge on the topic TRALI is summarized.

Key words: transfusion, acute lung injury

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