Alcohol intake contributes directly or indirectly to 15 to 20% of medical problems in primary care or an inpatient setting. It is estimated that approximately 500,000 episodes of withdrawal will be severe enough to require pharmacologic intervention. The total cost to the United States economy from alcohol abuse was estimated to be $185 billion for 1998. This review attempts to put forth a practical and evidence based approach towards the inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal. Various agents and their pharmacology are described. Strength of evidence regards to efficacy and shorter inpatient stays is examined.
Key words: substance abuse, pharmacology, addiction, pathophysiology, critical care