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Signa Vitae

Journal of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

Football referees as first responders in cardiac arrest. Assessment of a Basic Life Support training program.

Abstract

Aim. To assess football referees´ cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and automated external defibrillator (AED) use in a simulated sport incident scenario, after a brief training program.

Material and Methods. Quasi-experimental study with 35 amateur league football referees. A test – retest of related samples was carried out after the training program. Theoretical and hands-on session lasted 30 minutes, with 1/10 instructor/participant ratio. CPR skills were measured using Wireless Skill Report software and AED use by means of a specific check list.

Results. A third of sample knew what an AED is but only 8% knew how to use it. After training, all participants achieved 70% or higher CPR quality scores and were able to use AED properly (54.2% without any incidence). Mean time to discharge was shorter for participants who accomplished the quality goal (p=0.022).

Conclusions. After a very brief and simple training program, football referees were able to perform a potentially effective CPR and use an AED correctly in a simulated scenario. Basic life support training should be implemented in football referees´ formative curriculum.

Key words: automated external defibrillator, referees, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, basic life support, training, sport, football

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Automated external defibrillator skills among lay people in the region of Koroska: a pilot study

Abstract

Background. In the region of Koroška, there are more and more public spaces equipped with automated external defibrillators which can be used by a witnessed bystander. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the skills required for using automated external defibrillators.

Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in two family medicine practices. We included volunteers who visited their family doctor during a period of four days. Skills were assessed in a virtual setting using a plastic manikin.

Results. There were 107 participants in the sample, 60.0% were women. Average age of the sample was 47.6±16.8 years. In the practical part (skills testing), the participants earned 2.7 points from a total of 5 points. Younger participants and those who attended a course in basic life support, in the past 10 years, had a significantly higher score.

Conclusion. Lay people need more education regarding skills for using automated external defibrillators.

Key words: automated external defibrillator, basic life support, lay people, survival, cardiac arrest

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