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Signa Vitae

Journal of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

Short- and long-term outcome of patients aged 65 and over after cardiac surgery

Abstract

To analyze the short and long-term outcome of patients aged 65 years and over, after cardiac surgery. Over a 12-year period we analyzed 1750 patients with a mean age of 70.09 3.94 years. They were classified into three age groups: between 65 and 69 (n = 709), between 70 and 74 (n = 695) and 75 years and above (n = 346). Follow-up information was obtained by telephone conversation after a 6-month and 3-year period of discharge from the hospital. Included in the follow-up were 1235 patients and an interview was conducted with 501 (40.6%) patients or their next of kin.

Even though the in-hospital morbidity was highest in the oldest age group, there were no significant differences between groups (p = 0.051). There was no significant difference between groups in the length of hospital stay. The greatest in-hospital mortality was noted in the oldest age group (p = 0.046) compared to patients in the age groups between 65 and 69 and between 70 and 74 years old (p = 0.023 and p = 0.036). In the follow-up study, there was a significantly smaller telephone feedback response in the oldest age group compared to the youngest group (p = 0.003). There were no differences between the groups with respect to mortality and cardiac death after the 6-month and 3-year periods of discharge from hospital.

Our data showed that despite a poor short – and long-term outcome in patients aged 75 and over, all patients had an acceptable operative risk.

Key Words: elderly; outcome; cardiac surgery

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Intensive care management of patients with left ventricular assist device

Abstract

Mechanical circulatory support devices, especially left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) represent an important treatment modality for patients with end-stage heart failure (HF). In a 1-year period (from January to December 2017) in our intensive care unit (ICU) we had a total of 8 patients with LVAD implantation. LVADs are devices with unique physiology which restore tissue circulation by increasing blood supply, nevertheless, they can be challenging to manage and are associated with significant complications.

Keywords: Critical Care, Heart-Assist Devices, Heart Failure, Hemodynamics, Hemodynamic Monitoring, Cardiac surgery, Postoperative Complications

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Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography assessment of left ventricular shape and function after surgical remodelling

Abstract

Background Real-time three dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D-TEE) may better reflect left ventricle (LV) shape and function than cconventional 2D-TEE. The goal of this study was to evaluate the advantages of 3D analysis in shape assessment and to quantify the LV volume by ejection fraction (EF) measurement, after LV surgical remodelling.

Methods In a prospective manner, twenty consecutive coronary surgery patients with LV anteroapical aneurysm and functional mitral regurgitation were analyzed by 2D- and thereafter by 3D- TEE before and after surgery. The key intraoperative inclusion criteria was a LVEF < 30% confirmed by intraoperative 3D-TEE immediately before surgical remodeling.

Results Before surgery, the geometry of post infarction aneurysm shows negative curvatures of the antero-basal and infero-apical segment and the apex of LV is shifted clockwise, towards the mitral valve. Surgery had significantly reduced the LV volumes and the LVEF had increased by 13.3% as recorded by 2D-TEE and by 18.3% as assessed by 3D-TEE quantification (p < 0.001 for both). Accordingly, the longitudinal plane had been shortened, the apex was now shifted anti-clockwise towards the aorta and the inferior region had taken a more important function of the LV. Significantly lower values were observed in the EF measurement with 3D- vs 2D-TEE before remodelling (22.3 vs. 29.7%, p = 0.048).

Conclusion Improvement of LV function occurred due to the increased systolic contraction of the inferior region after remodelling in patients with postinfarction aneurysm.

Key words: intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), real-time three dimensional TEE (RT-3D TEE), left ventricle, cardiac surgery

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Cardiac surgery and sepsis in postoperative period – our experience

Abstract

The occurrence of sepsis after cardiac surgery is a rare event; however, its occurrence showed catastrophic clinical outcomes. The high morbidity and mortality revealed the need to improve treatment, aiming at patients’ better clinical outcome.

Patients that develop sepsis, regardless of the infectious focus and the subjacent disease, present high morbidity and mortality, which vary from 17% to 65%. The main predictors of infections in the postoperative period are: body mass index ≥40kg/m², haemodialysis in the preoperative period, pre-op cardiogenic shock, age ≥80 years, pre-op treatment with immunosuppressive agents, diabetes mellitus, ECC time ≥200 minutes, mechanical circulatory support, three or more revascularized vessels.

From January 2015 to December 2015, we studied 675 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was prescribed and given according to our protocol, from the induction of anaesthesia to the first postoperative day.

Sepsis in the postoperative period was defined as evidence on infection associated with two or more criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome: body temperature >38°C or <36°C, leukocytes >12,000 cells/mm³, positive blood cultures, respiratory rate >20/min, heart rate >100/min.

Key words: sepsis, postoperative period, cardiac surgery

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Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Species in a cardiac surgical intensive care unit

Abstract

Objective. Multi-drug resistant bacterial infections, in particular when Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is involved, have become a relevant problem in both general and specialized intensive care units. The aim of this study was to identify the epidemiology of MRSA infections in a Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit, to assess their impact on mortality and to identify predictors of MRSA infection and mortality in this population.

Design and settings. A 7-year observational study in a cardiac surgery teaching center.

Participants. Eight thousand, one hundred and sixty-two microbiological samples were obtained from 7,313 patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the study period.

Interventions. None.

Variables of interest and main results. Twenty-eight patients (0.38%) had MRSA infection. The most frequent site of MRSA isolation was from bronchoalveolar samples. Hospital mortality was 50% in patients with MRSA infection and 2% in patients without MRSA infection (p<0.001).

Few preoperative independent predictors of MRSA infection and hospital mortality were found at multivariate analysis. Outcomes were found to be most influenced by perioperative variables. MRSA infection was the strongest predictor of mortality, with an odds ratio of 20.5 (95% CI 4.143-101.626).

Conclusions. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections following cardiac surgery still have a strong impact on the patients’ outcome. More efforts should be directed toward the development of new risk analysis models that might implement health care practices and might become precious instruments for infection prevention and control.

Key words: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, infections, cardiac surgery, mortality, intensive care, cardiac anaesthesia

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