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Signa Vitae

Journal of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

Tag: child (Page 1 of 3)

Psoas abscess as the first manifestation of Crohn’s disease – case report

Abstract

A case of 16-year-old female with secondary psoas abscess as the complication of the Crohn’s disease was analysed. Her pre-hospital, long lasting, non-specific symptoms led to ultrasound (US) and radiologic imaging confirming the diagnosis. The antibiotic treatment was insufficient and worsening of the patient’s condition required surgical treatment including descendent colectomy, abscess drainage and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). In spite of numerous complications the condition of the child gradually improved and she was discharged from the hospital on the 71st postoperative day. Two years after the colectomy, the occlusion of her colostomy was performed.

Key words: child, Crohn’s disease, psoas abscess

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Severe brain injuries in children

Abstract

Injury is the leading cause of death or permanent disability in children up to 19 years of age and is one of the primary reasons for hospital treatment. Blunt injuries due to traffic accidents or falls and especially blunt head injuries are the most frequent child injuries.

Appropriate care and correct treatment of the injured child require multidisciplinary teamwork (medical emergency team, surgeons, radiologists, paediatric intensive care physicians and other specialists).

Key words: child, injury, treatment, intensive therapy

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Murdered women’s children: A social emergency and gloomy reality

Abstract

Femicide, defined as the killing of females by males because they are females, is becoming recognized worldwide as an important ongoing manifestation of gender inequality. Actual or imminent separation, abuser’s access to firearms, prior threats with a weapon, prior threats to kill the victim, a stepchild in the household, problematic alcohol and illicit drug use, as well as mental health problems, are associated with a substantially higher risk of femicide. Little is known about the number of orphaned children who have instantaneously lost both parents. Sparse attention has been focused on children whose mother was murdered: these are difficult cases for child psychiatry teams. Decisions about protection could be made by judges, the police, social workers or officers that attend victims, on the basis of empirical data and not merely by using intuitive criteria.

Key words: child, emergency, femicide

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The effect of posture modification during continuous one-handed chest compression: A pilot study using in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest simulation

Abstract

Background. We modified the posture of the one-handed chest compression (MOHCC) as follows: first, the axis of the rescuer’s compression hand was adjusted to the lower half of the patient’s sternum; second, the opposite hand was wrapped around the elbow joint of the rescuer’s compression arm. This study evaluated the effect of the MOHCC on the mean chest compression depth (MCD) over time.

Methods. Thirty medical doctors conducted 2 min of continuous MOHCC without ventilation using the in-hospital pediatric arrest model (70-cm-high bed, 25-cm-high stepstool, a pediatric manikin and a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) meter). The MCD and mean chest compression rate (MCR) were measured at 30 s intervals using the Q-CPR review software.

Results. The MCD changed significantly over time (0–30 s, 41.9–44.7 mm; 30–60 s, 40.4–43.6 mm; 60–90 s, 39.2–42.8 mm; 90–120 s, 38.6–42.3 mm; [95% CI], P=0.002). However, it did not decrease significantly between 60–90 s and 90–120 s (P=0.173). The total decrease in MCD was 2.9 mm over a 2 min period. The MCR did not change significantly over time (0–30 s, 108.6–118.9 /min; 30–60 s, 107.9–119.1 /min; 60–90 s, 107.7–119.3 /min; 90–120 s, 107.4–119.0 /min; P=0.800).

Conclusions. Although the MCD changed significantly over a 2 min period, it did not decrease significantly after 90 s during performance of MOHCC. The MOHCC might be considered when the one-handed chest compression (OHCC) is selected as a chest compression method for cardiac arrest in small children.

Key words: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, child, fatigue

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Biomarkers of sepsis in neonates and children

Abstract

Sepsis, and related complications, is still a common cause of death in hospitalized patients worldwide, especially in critically ill neonates and children. Sepsis is also responsible for significant morbidity, and financial burden. It is very important to recognize sepsis early, since delayed diagnosis is associated with worse outcome. The early detection of sepsis remains a great challenge for clinicians because the use of blood cultures, the gold standard for diagnosis of bacteremia, is fraught with difficulties. The role of different immune and metabolic biomarkers is to improve the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of sepsis. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin are currently the most widely used biomarkers, but they have limited abilities to distinguish sepsis from other inflammatory conditions or to predict outcome. In this review, these biomarkers will be discussed along with novel diagnostic, prognostic and treatment response biomarkers, including interleukins -6, -8, -18, tumor necrosis factor – alpha, CD11b, CD64 and CD15s. The future of sepsis biomarkers lies in extensive validation studies of all novel biomarkers and their combinations as early predictors of sepsis. Also, research to identify novel sepsis biomarkers and develop specific therapeutic strategies based on biomarker information has to be continued.

Key words: infant, child, biomarkers, CD15s antigen, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin

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