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Signa Vitae

Journal of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

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Hyperperfusion and intracranial haemorrhage after carotid angioplasty with stenting – latest review

Abstract

The number of endovascular procedures is constantly increasing. As far as the carotid artery is concerned, carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is an alternative to surgical treatment (carotid endarterectomy; CEA).

Two major devastating complications can occur after both procedures – cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH).

The incidence of CHS and ICH in CAS is fortunately low but overall morbidity and mortality remains high.

This latest review re-evaluates the pathogenesis, clinical features, risk factors and diagnostic procedures as well as management of these two complications.

Key words: carotid artery stenting, complications, hyperperfusion syndrome, intracranial haemorrhage

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Veno-venous two-site cannulation versus veno-venous double lumen ECMO: complications and survival in infants with respiratory failure

Abstract

Objective. To compare complications and survival between the two-site veno-venous versus the veno-venous double lumen extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in infants with respiratory failure.
Methods. The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO, Ann Arbor, Michigan) provided the registry database, collected between 1999-2009 for this research project. During this period, 9086 infants ≤ 7 kg birth weight (BW) were treated with ECMO. From these children, those who were older than 32 days and received veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO), were extracted for analysis. From a total of 270 infants who met the inclusion criteria, 236 infants were treated with veno-venous double lumen (VVDL) ECMO and 34 infants received VV two-site ECMO. ELSO records were reviewed for the following information: demographic data, type of ventilation, ventilator days and settings during ECMO, complications during ECMO and survival.
Results. Eighty-seven percent (n=236) of infants were cannulated with VVDL and 13% (n=34) with VV two-site cannulation. Twenty-four hours after ECMO onset, ventilator settings were significantly higher in the VV two-site group. Median ECMO duration was significantly shorter in the VV two-site group (137(90/208) vs. 203(128/336) hours, p=0.01). Total complication rate and survival rates (71% in the VVDL group and 56% in the VV two-site group) were not significantly different.
Conclusion. Both cannulation modes for ECMO are safe for use in infants with respiratory failure. The decision regarding which technique should be used for this group of patients depends mainly on best practice experience of the individual ECMO center and on the technical equipment routinely used by the center.

 

Key words: ECMO, infants, respiratory failure, complications, survival

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Use of central venous catheters in children

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in the Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Split University Hospital (SUH). We reviewed the records of all children that had CVCs and were hospitalized between January 2002 and March 2006. Patients were evaluated with respect to their age, gender, catheter type, indication for CVC insertion, site and side of the body of CVC insertion. The duration of catheter use and eventual complications were also taken into consideration. A total of 352 CVCs were inserted in 300 children. Patient age ranged from 0 to 18 years. The average catheter insertion time was 12.88 days. We noted 66 (18.8%) CVC-related complications. Complications related to CVCs insertion were malposition of catheter (5.4%) and pneumothorax (0.9%). Occlusion of CVCs (4.3%), catheter related-bloodstream infections (CRBI) (4.0%), dislodgment (3.7%) and catheter damage (0.6%) were complications associated with lenght of CVCs use. We conclude that central venous catheterization is a safe and efficient procedure with minimal complications in pediatric patients.

Key words: central venous catheter, indications, complications, children.

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