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Signa Vitae

Journal of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

Fluid optimisation in pancreas surgery


Background. Optimal intravascular blood volume, cardiac output and sufficient oxygen supply is a mainstay in major abdominal surgery. Adequate haemodynamic management can improve a favourable outcome and shorten the duration of hospital stay.

Our study anticipated different fluid and vasoactive drug consumption and less complications during the pancreatic surgery in the group of patients where extended haemodynamic monitoring was applied.

Materials and methods. 59 adult patients, ASA 2-3, undergoing elective pancreas surgery, were included in the study. In 29 patients in the study group (SG – extended haemodynamic monitoring), cardiac index (CI), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and nominal stroke index (SI) were maintained within 80% of baseline values with actions following study protocol. Patients’ groups were homogenous, even when divided into 4 subgroups (control group (CG) and without epidural catheter (EC), CG and with EC, SG and without EC, SG and with EC).

Intraoperative variables (amount of fluids, vasopressors, surgery duration) and hospitalisation duration, wound healing, reoperation, mortality and other complication were recorded on the postoperative days 3, 5, 8, 15 and on hospital discharge.

Results. There was no difference in ASA health status, intraoperative management and duration of hospitalisation in 4 subgroups. There is a significant difference in intraoperative use of vasopressor support between 4 subgroups (Fisher exact test, p=0,032). All patients in SG with EC required vasopressors. Number of patients with major complications were not statistically different between groups. Pulmonary embolism, postoperative food intolerance and myocardial infarction have occurred only in CG.

Conclusion. In our study there was no difference in overall fluid and vasoactive drug demand. Although in the studied subgroup of patients with additional epidural anaesthesia there was significantly increased demand for vasoactive drugs. The incidence of complication was low in both groups, however, some of major complications occurred only in CG.

Keywords: haemodynamic monitoring, fluid optimisation, postoperative outcome, pancreatic surgery

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Haemodynamic monitors in laparoscopy


Laparoscopic procedures are often performed on high risk surgical patients that could benefit from close haemodynamic monitoring and goal directed fluid therapy. Pneumoperitoneum has been shown to influence haemodynamic variables and alter arterial pressure waveform upon which many minimally invasive haemodynamic monitors rely. There are a few individual studies verifying various less invasive haemodynamic devices. With the possible exception of oesophageal Doppler, their measurements under pneumoperitoneum conditions are less reliable. Besides modifying reliability of monitors, pneumoperitoneum possibly also exerts independent influence on haemodynamic variables, such as lowering predictive value of pulse pressure variation for fluid responsiveness.

KEYWORDS: pneumoperitoneum, laparoscopy, haemodynamic monitoring

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Current concepts in fluid therapy and non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring


Advantages of goal directed therapy (GDT) have recently become more and more difficult to prove in the face of newly implemented protocolised patient care approaches that also clearly improve patient outcome. However, individualised approach using GDT has been suggested to be superior to protocolised care and large meta-analyses still consistently show beneficial effects of GDT. Concerns of invasiveness were the reason why some patients’ haemodynamics was not measured and in turn were not included in any GDT protocols. Recently, non-invasive devices to measure arterial blood pressure and haemodynamic variables emerged, and although they are very appealing and easy to use, they require further validation both by comparison to more invasive methods and by outcome trials.

Keywords: Haemodynamic monitoring, non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring, goal-directed therapy, fluid therapy, validation

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