In cardiac surgery patients, intracoronary (IC) administration of levosimendan can provide optimal drug spread, enabling effective manifestation of favorable drug effects and avoiding potentially harmful systemic hypotension. This could be beneficial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We present ten cases of IC administration of levosimendan in ACS manifested as ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris. All patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, performed as an “off-pump” or “on-pump”/“off-clamp” procedure (latter one with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass on the beating heart). Levosimendan was administered as an IC bolus (125-250 μg) in each coronary artery graft (2-3 grafts). Intravenous (IV) levosimendan infusion continued (0.1-0.2 μg·kg-1·min-1) after graft placements (24-48 h), with IV infusion of norepinephrine (0.1 mg·ml-1), if needed. Cardiac function was assessed using LVEF (%) (Teicholz), thermodilution cardiac index (CI) (ml·m-2), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (dynes·sec·cm-5).
Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-ranks test [presented as median (MED) with interquartile range (IQR)] indicated a significant difference between preoperative vs. immediate postoperative CI, SVR, and LVEF in all cases [2.2 (1.9-2.5) vs. 3.1 (2.9-3.4) ml·m-2, 1173.0 (1062.7-1278.2) vs. 882.5 (763.5-993.0) dynes·sec·cm-5, 44.5 (36.0-46.7) vs. 53.5 (45.7-59.2) %, respectively] (P=0.005), i.e. IC administration of levosimendan was associated with prompt improvement of intraoperative hemodynamics and cardiac contractility. IC administration of levosimendan may be a promising alternative method for improving decreased cardiac function in acute cardiac ischemia, besides necessary surgical revascularization.
Key words: levosimendan, intracoronary, acute coronary syndromes, CABG surgery