Non-oliguric hyperkalaemia (NOHK) in neonates is defined as a plasma potassium level > 6.5 mmol/L in the presence of urine output ≥ 1 mL/kg/h during the first 72 hours of life. It is characterized by a rapid rise of serum potassium to excessively high values, a high risk of cardiac arrhythmias and no occurrence after 72 hours of birth. NOHK commonly occurs in premature neonates, especially in those with a gestational age <28 weeks, with only a few reports of this entity in moderate or late preterm neonates. The effectiveness and safety of different treatments for NOHK is uncertain and currently there is no firm treatment recommendation. We describe the case of a moderately premature neonate (32+ 2 weeks gestation), with severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, who developed NOHK that was treated with inhaled salbutamol. When salbutamol is used for the treatment of NOHK, an initial paradoxical rise in potassium levels should always be taken into account to avoid cardiac arrhythmias.
Key words: non-oliguric hyperkalaemia, premature, infants, salbutamol, hyperkalaemia