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Signa Vitae

A Journal In Intensive Care And Emergency Medicine

Tag: prognosis

Monitoring of a middle latency auditory evoked potential index during postresuscitation care with induced therapeutic hypothermia

Abstract

A 48-year-old man suddenly suffered a cardiac arrest at the supermarket and underwent bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. During transportation to our emergency center, ventricular fibrillation occurred and defibrillation was successful. Restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with sinus rhythm occurred 12 min after sudden cardiac arrest. On arrival at the emergency center 2 min after ROSC, middle latency auditory evoked potential index (MLAEPi) was measured and MLAEPi monitoring was continued to post-resuscitation care with induced therapeutic hypothermia (TH). This case highlights the usefulness of MLAEPi monitoring during primary care in the emergency center and postresuscitation care, including TH, for predicting neurological outcome.

Key words: resuscitation, cardiopulmonary arrest, monitoring, prognosis

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Rapid Sequence Intubation in the Pre-Hospital Setting – Difference Between Trauma and Nontrauma Patients

Abstract

Aim. To determine, in a prospective observational study, whether there are differences in the practice of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) and to ascertain the characteristics between trauma and non-trauma patients that were intubated in a pre-hospital setting.
Methods. Included were patients (18 years and over) who were not in cardiac arrest and who underwent RSI and were transported to hospital. From January 2000 to December 2006 we intubated 636 patients in cardiac arrest, 159 critically ill non-trauma patients and 142 trauma patients. Placement of an endotracheal tube was confirmed by capnography. We compared medical and trauma groups of intubated patients. We used the two-independent sample t-test, Chi-square test and Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test for statistical analysis.
Results. Statistical differences between groups (medical vs. trauma): initial main arterial pressure (104.9 +/- 34.6 vs. 90.7 +/- 24.8; p=0.01), blood glucose levels (9.2 +/- 3.5 vs. 5.9 +/- 1.9; p=0.011), administration of colloids (13,1 % vs. 70,2; p=0.003) and Hyperhaes (2.5 % vs.17.6 %; p=0.001), male gender (62.3 vs 81.6; p=0.014), rate of RSI (71.1 % vs. 96.4 %; p<0.001), initial GCS distribution 3-4/5-8/9-15 (30.9 % /61.6 % /7.5 % vs 11.7 % /60,2 % /28,1 %; p<0.001), initial pet CO2 (49,5 +/- 8,4 mmHg vs. 32,8 +/- 5.4 mmHg; p=0.007), APACHE II first day of hospitalization (25,9 +/- 4.9 vs. 20,8 +/- 3.6; p=0.002) and hospital mortality (78/159 (49.1 %) vs. 44/142 (30.1 %); p=0.023). We also analyzed the number of intubation attempts, intubation success rate, perceived difficulty of intubation and side effects with complications. The hospital survival analysis showed that survivors are younger (54.2 +/- 19.9 vs. 62.3 +/-18.8; p=0.019), have a higher rate of RSI (175/179(97.7 %) vs. 75/122(61.6 %); p=0.002) and have a better (lower) APACHE II score (19.9 +/-3.6 vs.28.3 +/- 4.6; p=0.002). We found the highest mortality rate in the subgroup of patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (58.8 %, 60/102).
Conclusion. In non-trauma, critically ill patients we found a lower rate of RSI, more patients with an initial GCS of 3-4, higher APACHE II first day, higher initial pet CO2 and higher hospital mortality than in trauma patients.

 

Keywords: rapid sequence intubation, pre-hospital setting, injured patients, critically ill patients, prognosis

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Baseline characteristics, time-to-hospital admission and in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, 2002 to 2005

Abstract

Objective. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine baseline patient characteristics, time-to-hospital admission, utilization of reperfusion therapy and outcomes of patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) between 2002 and 2005, particularly after 24-h primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was introduced in 2004.
Methods. Included were all patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from 2002 to 2005 who met the criteria for ACS. Information on patients’ demographic characteristics, medical history, time-to-hospital admission, clinical characteristics on admission, laboratory examinations, ECG findings, treatments, hospital duration, and in-hospital outcomes was collected by completing a standardized case report form.
Results. There was a sustained increase in admissions between 2002 and 2005, altogether 899 patients were hospitalized. A significant decrease in time-to-hospital admission was achieved. More patients arrived within 4-6 hours (16.3% in 2002 vs. 31.5% in 2005) and less after 12 hours (35.0% in 2002 vs. 13.4% in 2005). A significant increase in primary PCI rate was achieved (16.9% in 2002 vs. 90% in 2005, P<0.001). Consequently, the rate of thrombolysis, postponed PCI and nonreperfusion medical therapy decreased. From 2002 to 2005, total in-hospital stay decreased significantly (15.4±13.0 days vs. 7.8±8.5 days, P<0.001), in-hospital mortality insignificantly (11.3% vs. 7.2%).
Conclusion. Despite the significant increase in primary PCI between 2002-2005, there was only an insignificant decrease in in-hospital mortality. Further shortening the time-to-hospital admission and increasing primary PCI among older hemodynamically unstable ACS patients, particularly those with cardiogenic shock, could achieve an additional decrease in mortality.

Key words: acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction, time-to-hospital admission, prognosis, management, percutaneous coronary intervention, mortality

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Initial bradycardia in hypotensive (hemorrhagic) patients in a prehospital setting – does it have a prognostic value?

Abstract

Introduction. Some studies have shown that the presence of bradycardia in hemorrhage-caused-hypotension is associated with a better prognosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare bradycardic and tachycardic responses to hemorrhaging in a pre-hospital setting and to evaluate the outcome.

Patients and methods. All patiens were adults (>18 years) with tachycardia and bradycardia hypotension (hemorrhaging) in a pre-hospital setting. We compared a tachycardic group with a bradycardic group using the following criteria: age, gender, APACHE II on admission, trauma vs. non-trauma patients, outcome (survival) and the use of vasopressors.
Results. Over a two year period, 107 patients were screened. The tachycardic group was younger in age than the bradycardic group. Tachycardia was significantly more common in males. The bradycardic group had better APACHE II on admission and also better outcome (survival). Mortality was lower in bradycardic patients than in tachycardic patients.
Conclusion. Bradycardia is a real phenomenon in hemorrhaging patients in a prehospital setting. It might be associated with both better APACHE II on admission and better outcome.

Keywords: bradycardia, hypotensive (hemorrhagic) patients, prehospital setting, APACHE II, prognosis.

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