Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a postinfectious, nonsuppurative sequela of pharyngeal infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, or Group A β hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS). Of the associated symptoms, only damage to the heart’s valvular tissue, or rheumatic heart disease (RHD), can become a chronic condition leading to congestive heart failure, stroke, endocarditis, and death. ARF is the most common cause of cardiac disease in children in developing countries. A joint meeting of the World Health Organization and the International Society estimated that 12 million people in developing countries were affected by acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, with the majority of these being children. This level of morbidity is comparable to developed countries’ in the last century, before an increase in the standard of living and the introduction of penicillin. Significant trivalvular disease, involving the mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves, is uncommon. Although rare, trivalvular disease has been described in the literature. Clinical and hemodynamic manifestations depend on the severity of each lesion. We reported this case because of the rare presentation of an uncommon disorder and to highlight the fact that the presence of trivalvular disease can be difficult to diagnose, even for a trained physician.
Key words: rheumatic heart disease, triple valve disease, rheumatic valve disease