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Signa Vitae

Journal of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

Thrombosis in newborns: experience from 31 cases

Abstract

Thrombosis is the result of congenital or acquired prothrombotic risk factors. The incidence of thrombosis in the paediatric population is highest in newborns, as about 10% of thrombotic events occur in the first four weeks of life. Haemostasis in a newborn, though still developing, is a well balanced mechanism. About 90% of all thrombotic events are due to acquired and the rest to congenital risk factors.
The aim of our study was to estimate the incidence of thrombosis in a population of Slovenian newborns and to study risk factors, location and treatment of thrombotic events.
Inpatient charts of newborns with thrombosis, admitted to a tertiary neonatology centre and paediatric intensive care unit between 2004 and 2011, were studied retrospectively. Family history, location, aetiology and treatment of thrombosis were analysed.
Thirty one newborns, 17 boys (54.8%) and 14 girls (45.2%), with 31 thrombotic events were found. There were 17 cases (54.8%) of arterial and 14 cases (45.2%) of venous thrombosis. A  family history of thrombophilia was found in two cases (6.5%). Twenty six cases (83.9%) were contributed to acquired risk factors and five (16.1%) to congenital aetiology. Four cases (12.8%) were treated, two with anticoagulation, one with thrombolysis and one with both. The estimated incidence of thrombosis was 0.17 per 1000 live births. Our data showed a higher incidence of thrombosis in Slovenian newborns and a higher incidence of congenital prothrombotic risk factors than in the data published so far.

 

Key words: newborn, thrombosis, incidence, risk factor, treatment

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Risk factors and outcomes for congenital diaphragmatic hernia in neonatal intensive care unit patients

Abstract

Objectives. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is one of the most common and serious congenital disorders seen in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and it is associated with a high mortality. In order to determine the risk factors and outcomes of CDH, we summarized data from a 10 year period.
Methods. A retrospective study was conducted on 38 CDH patients. Clinical characteristics and risk factors were compared and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors for mortality.
Results. Thirty patients, from a total of 38, underwent surgery for CDH. The total survival rate in patients with CDH was 63.2% (24/38) and the overall operative mortality was 20.0% (6/30). There was a significant difference between CDH patients who survived (n=24) and those who died (n=14) in the age on admission, 5-minute Apgar score, onset of respiratory distress, cardiac malformations and presence of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN). Using logistic regression analysis, the following factors independently predicted mortality: the age on admission (OR: 8.15, 95%CI: 1.43 to 46.41) and cardiac malformations (OR: 18.54, 95%CI: 1.32 to 259.62). Moreover, when we compared CDH patients who survived after surgery (n=24) with those who died (n=6), there was a significant difference in the admission age, 1-minute Apgar score, presence of PPHN, lung hypoplasia, time of stabilization prior to surgery, and highest oxygenation index after surgery.
Conclusions. Mortality was very high in CDH patients and was associated with care procedures. Risk factors for mortality in neonatal CDH were the age on admission and associated malformations.

Key words: congenital diaphragmatic hernia, risk factor, neonatal intensive care unit

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