Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify problems of emergency transfusion at the bedside and to determine need for massive transfusion protocol.
Methods. We included patients who met the criteria for “trauma team activation” and were admitted to division of trauma. The amount of blood product transfused in each unit was investigated for balanced transfusion. We also investigated the compliance with assessment of blood consumption score. The correlation between the time elapsed from patient visit to first transfusion order and time elapsed from first transfusion order to transfusion start was analyzed. Finally, we investigated various factors which serve to influence the decision-making process regarding early transfusion order.
Results. Ratio of packed Red blood cells (pRBC): Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was well-balanced, but platelet transfusion done was much lower than pRBC and FFP in emergency room. The application of emergency blood release did not match the criteria of assessment of blood consumption (ABC) score. The time from the first transfusion order to the transfusion start was found to be constant irrespective of time from patient visit to first transfusion order. And, the time from the first transfusion order to transfusion start did not differ significantly among patients with early transfusion order and delayed transfusion order. Only systolic blood pressure of < 90 mmHg was identified as a major predictor for early transfusion order.
Conclusion. Balanced transfusion is not easy and emergency transfusion could be delayed at the bedside. Integrated and systematic structures for massive transfusion protocol would be invaluable and indispensable.
Key words: transfusion, emergency, protocol