The article presents the basics and control of erythropoiesis in the fetus and the newborn, the development of anaemia of prematurity and its treatment, with an emphasis on the use of human recombinant erythropoietin. The Intensive Care Unit of the Paediatric Clinic Maribor began treating anaemia of prematurity with erythropoietin in 2000. After introducing the treatment, the clinic found that the number of blood product transfusions and the needed blood volume decreased. In addition to erythropoietin, this was the result of stricter criteria for applying transfusion of concentrated erythrocytes.
Key words: preterm infant, anaemia of prematurity, erythropoietin, transfusion