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Signa Vitae

A Journal In Intensive Care And Emergency Medicine

Category: Ahead of print (Page 1 of 2)

The role of nitric oxide in apoptosis modulation in newborns with pneumonia

Abstract

Introduction. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important diagnostic marker and mediator in the inflammatory process, which plays a key role in the mechanism of programmed cell death, thus, forming the basis of many pathological diseases.

Methods. The study involved 73 newborns with pneumonia (moderate severity in 44 neonates (group 1), severe pneumonia in 29 (group 2)). The intensity of neutrophil apoptosis and necrosis was determined by flow cytometry, whereas nitric oxide metabolites were measured by spectrophotometry.

Results. The level of nitric oxide metabolites (NO2+NO3) in newborns with pneumonia was higher than in healthy children (16.93 (15.82; 17.79) μmol/ml) and correlated with disease severity (in group 1 – 22.65 (21.42; 23.40) μmol/ml in group 2 – 26.82 (25.81; 27.91) μmol/ml). The level of NO3 increased moderately, while NO2 generation was more intense, exceeding control indexes in both groups (рc1<0.001; рc2<0.001; р12<0.001).

The occurrence of intensive neutrophil apoptosis was revealed in newborns with pneumonia of moderate severity (рc1<0.001), while necrosis prevailed in severe pneumonia (рc2<0.001).

Inverse correlation (R=-0.63; р<0.05) was found between the level of nitric oxide metabolites and neutrophil apoptosis; and direct correlation (R=0.68; р<0.05) was revealed between NO metabolites and neutrophil necrosis indices.

Conclusions. Increased generation of nitric oxide metabolites, that directly correlated with disease severity in newborns with pneumonia, was found. NO2 has multidirectional effects on neutrophil apoptosis and necrosis, leading to toxic accumulation of neutrophils in the organism, thus enhancing the inflammatory and intoxication process that impact disease severity.

Key words: nitric oxide, apoptosis, necrosis, neutrophils, pneumonia, newborn

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Bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome

Abstract

A 72-year-old man was transferred to our hospital for refractory severe acute respiratory syndrome. On arrival, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Furthermore, he required veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Two days later, he was extubated and supported with periods of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), with a new mask. Because of large amounts of bronchial secretions that he was not able to expectorate, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) was performed to remove the secretions, without interrupting NIV support. During the procedure, the patient remained hemodynamically stable, breathing spontaneously and with just a mild reduction in oxygen saturation (SpO2) (97.9% vs. 96.8%). This case report highlights the possibility of performing upper endoscopic procedures, such as FFB, during non-invasive ventilation in patients in whom this respiratory support is required and its interruption may be harmful.

Key words: non-invasive ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, intensive care unit

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Are chest compression depths measured by the Resusci Anne SkillReporter and CPRmeter the same?

Abstract

Objective. We investigated whether data collected using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter were comparable with those collected using the CPRmeter (cardiopulmonary resuscitation meter -an accelerometer feedback device used to provide high-quality chest compressions).

Materials and Methods. Fifty continuous chest compressions were performed using a Resusci Anne SkillReporter and a CPRmeter under two conditions (Experiment 1: complete chest wall recoil; Experiment 2: incomplete chest wall recoil). The conditions were defined according to visual feedback signals provided by the CPRmeter. A single healthcare worker performed 20 repetitions under each experimental condition alternately. Chest compression data were collected and analyzed using the Laerdal PC SkillReporting System and QCPR Review software.

Results. The mean difference in chest compression depth between the Resusci Anne SkillReporter and CPRmeter was 6.7 ± 1.2 mm in Experiment 1 (95% CI: 6.1~7.3) and was significantly higher in Experiment 2 (17.3 ± 1.9 mm; 95% CI: 16.4~18.2; p < 0.001).

Conclusions. The chest compression depth measured by the Resusci Anne SkillReporter was significantly different from that of the CPRmeter. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructors, trainees, and researchers should be aware of this difference to ensure the most accurate interpretation of their training or experimental results.

Key words: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, manikins, feedback, education, training

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Informed Consent for Intravenous Contrast Administration in the Emergency Department: Understanding and satisfaction among patients using the video-assisted vs. traditional methods

Abstract

Background. Computed-tomography (CT) is increasingly performed among patients who visit an emergency department (ED), many of whom require the administration of intravenous contrast, to make an accurate diagnosis of their condition and offer prompt treatment. Though the safety profile of new intravenous contrast agents has improved, patients are still exposed to significant risk from potentially life-threatening reactions.

Materials and Methods. This is a prospective study. Subjects were patients over the age of 18, or their family representative, who visited the ED. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the original routine explanation for consent or the video-assisted explanation. Patients completed a questionnaire about contrast adverse effects and the proposed treatment.

Results. Mean values of the degree of understanding of informed consent were relatively higher in the video-assisted group. When assessing the proficiency of the informer, the score for understanding and satisfaction was higher in the attending staff informed group than the house staff informed group.

Conclusion. This study showed a higher level of understanding in the group that was provided information using visual aids, rather than in the traditional way. Also, a higher level of understanding and satisfaction was shown among those who were given explanations by an attending staff member.

The busy ED, due to factors such as overcrowding, is expected to see benefit from appropriately utilizing multimedia visual aids, and also from more experienced medical staff providing information.

Key words: informed consent, intravenous contrast, visual aids

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Acid-based disturbances due to perioperative fluid therapy with slightly alkalized and acid-based neutral balanced crystalloids: a comparative study

Abstract

The study aimed at comparing the effects of perioperatively administered balanced crystalloid infusion solutions, containing varied quantities of metabolizable anions, on homeostasis. In the prospective randomized open label study, patients were assigned to Plasmalyte (PL) and Ringerfundin (RF) Groups. The infusion solutions were parenterally administered at 1000 mL/6 hours. Arterialized capillary blood was sampled at the time of transfer to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (Time 0), and again at both 2 and 6 hours from Time 0. The collected blood was tested for blood gas parameters. A total of 112 patients were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference (P=0.329) in baseline pH values between the same-sized PL and RF Groups, with median pH values of 7.34 and 7.32, respectively. Similarly, no significant differences were seen in pH values measured after 2 hours (P=0.436), with median values of 7.38 for the PL Group and 7.37 for the RF Group. Finally, no significant differences were observed after 6 hours (P=0.528), with median values of 7.41 and 7.40, respectively. Over time, pH values increased significantly in both groups (P≤0.001). There were no significant changes in either baseline base excess, actual bicarbonate, standard bicarbonate, partial pressure O2 and CO2 values, measured after 2 and 6 hours between the PL and RF Groups. The study failed to show differences between the balanced solutions Plasmalyte, in 5% glucose, and Ringerfundin, on the effects of pH and other acid-base parameters in patients receiving postoperative care following elective surgery.

Key words: crystalloids, fluid therapy, Plasmalyte, Ringerfundin, acid base, internal environment

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