Signa Vitae

Journal for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

Evolving from Past to Future: Facilitating SMART research

Abstract

In clinical research, there has been an increasing need to titrate ethical, legal and insurance requirements to the type of study, so that higher-risk research receives necessary and appropriate detailed attention, while low-risk studies can proceed more rapidly.

Spontaneous Medically Advantageous Research Trials (SMART) are non-profit studies that carry minimal or no risk to patients. This type of investigation, however, is currently hampered by the fact that, in many hospitals and jurisdictions it has to undergo the same bureaucratic procedures and safety assessments as high-risk, for-profit studies. We strongly believe that such practice of scientific research assessment should be radically modified. We advocate a new, specific research category for SMART investigations that grants them a preferential route from conception to ethics assessment to execution. In addition, we argue that such low risk studies assessing common, often not evidence-based applied treatments or investigations should in fact be a mandatory component of modern medicine. All clinicians, scientists, patients, patient associations, politicians, scientific associations and common citizens should be involved in this process, as they all play a crucial role in its evolution and success.

We contend that modern medical research and entire health systems should transition to a novel model of healthcare system where SMART execution is embedded into daily practice, in order to minimize anecdotal practice and maximize evidence-based practice.

Key-words: no profit study, medical research, ethical committee, progress

Read More

Lung replacement therapies for acute respiratory failure

Abstract

Acute respiratory failure is one of the critical conditions with an increased mortality. In order to reverse lung injury and reduce the mortality rate, several lung replacement therapies have been developed, including the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the intravascular oxygenator and carbon dioxide removal device, the intravenous membrane oxygenator and the thoracic artificial lung. This article aims to present the properties, indications and advantages of these devices.

Key words: artificial organs, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, respiratory insufficiency

Read More

Nursing and Implementation of Modern Technology

Abstract

Introduction. Implementation of technology in health care has become a global trend. The society modernization has led to the increasing development of technology and information systems. Nurses in everyday work encounter with the application of communications and information technologies. The implementation of modern technology in nursing increases nurses efficiency, but it is also changing the way of care for patients. Implementation of modern technology in nursing is the result of interactions between technical skills, culture and social acceptance in the working environment.

Aim. The aim of this article was to investigate the application of modern technology in nursing and how it affects the nursing profession, what competencies are required for the introduction of technology and the role of nurses in the process.

Materials and methods. PubMed database, OJIN base (Online Journal of Issues in Nursing), HCA (Hospital Corporation of America) were searched with the aim of finding appropriate studies and articles. Keywords which were used: nursing, modern technology, nursing challenges, education.

Results. During a search of the databases, we found seven articles of which according to the inclusion criteria for this study we used three. Data from the literature that was used showed that the application of modern technology in nursing is still in the initial process of adaptation.

Conclusion. Modern technology in the nursing profession is in its infancy, a lot of factors are contributing to slower development such as high cost, a shortage of nurses and training of medical staff to work with the new technology.

Key words: nursing, modern technology, nursing challenges, education

Read More

Genetic determinants of survival

Abstract

The human genome comprises some 20,000 genes, or 3 billion base pairs. Variation in this genetic sequence is common and some of these variants affect gene function or the protein transcribed from it. Human characteristics are determined by the interaction of the genome with environmental challenges, and differences between us thus result from variation in those challenges and in the genome itself. This is true of human susceptibility to disease, and survival from it. Genetic variation influences human behaviours which may predispose to health or disease; the risk of contracting an infectious disease, or of suffering diseases such as cancer or myocardial infarction; the development of complications; the response to any treatment administered; and thus the outcome of the disease state. Genetic studies can help shed light on the mechanisms which underpin disease processes, whilst perhaps suggesting ways in which treatment might be ‘personalised’, and novel therapeutic targets for drug development.

More sophisticated approaches to such endeavours are required, given the failure to identify the bulk of gene variants of influence using conventional strategies.

Key words: gene, polymorphism, survival, genome

Read More

Can tablets be used as a simulator for automated external defibrillation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation courses?

Abstract

Background. A novel, tablet-based automated external defibrillator (AED) simulator has been developed to facilitate AED training.

Objective. To evaluate if the tablet AED simulator (an AED simulator based on mobile technology (M-AED)) can be successfully used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) courses. To test medical and dental students’ CPR attitudes, knowledge and skills, and evaluate the impact of a one day CPR course.

Methods. One hundred and twenty-four medical and dental students of University of Zagreb participated in a basic life support and automated external defibrillator (BLS/AED) course. All students filled out demographic, CPR attitudes and knowledge questionnaires before and after the course. Half of the students practised AED skills during the course on a conventional AED trainer (C-AED), and half on M-AED. All underwent assessment of CPR skills after the course with C-AED. Those that used M-AED during training, rated its use.

Results. All students successfully completed the assessment of skills after the course, with no significant difference in the number of those who had to be retested between C-AED and M-AED. A significant improvement in CPR attitudes and knowledge was noted after the course among all students, with no difference between C-AED and M-AED groups. M-AED as an AED trainer was highly rated.

Conclusions. Tablet based AED simulators can be effectively utilized during BLS/AED courses as a substitute for conventional AED trainers.

Key words: defibrillators, computer simulation, mobile applications, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, European Resuscitation Council Guidelines

Read More

Page 1 of 78

© 2015. Signa Vitae. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.