The impact of changing work schedules on American firefighters’ sleep patterns and well-being
1Trauma Research Department, St Anthony Hospital, Lakewood
2Medical Department, West Metro Fire Rescue
3Trauma Research Department, Swedish Medical Center
4Emergency Services, St. Anthony Hospital,Medical Department, West Metro Fire Rescue
5Critical Care, Pulmonary and Sleep Associates
6Trauma Services, Centura Health
DOI: 10.22514/SV101.042015.3 Vol.10,Issue 1,April 2015 pp.25-37
Published: 30 April 2015
Across the nation, fire departments are adopting the 48/96 work schedule, in which firefighters work 48 consecutive hours with the following 96 hours off. Our study objective was to explain and quantify the impact of switching from the Kelly schedule to the 48/96 schedule by measuring changes in sleep, feelings of daytime function, as well as perceptions of professional and personal well-being for American firefighters. Sleep diaries and self-reported surveys were administered to firefighters at an urban fire department. Sleep diaries measuring the number of hours slept and feelings of refreshment were compared one month before and four months after implementation of the 48/96 schedule. The self-reported surveys measured sleepiness levels via the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Secondary study objectives included changes in professional and personal well-being time for personal schedules, satisfaction, and health habits before and after the 48/96 schedule was implemented. The 59 firefighters included in the study reported an increase in sleep on-shift after the new schedule implementation (5.8 to 6.6 hours/night, p < 0.001). Participants also reported increased feelings of refreshment on days off (p < 0.001) and decreased daytime sleepiness (p < 0.001). We also found a general trend of improved perceptions of satisfaction, less shift interference with personal schedules and decreased feelings of burnout. American firefighters appeared to benefit from a 48/96 schedule, with short-term improvements in sleep patterns, feelings of burnout, and time for personal schedules.
firefighters, shift-work sleep disorder, emergency medical technicians, workplace, sleep, fatigue, burnout, professional, organizational culture
LISA M CAPUTO,ALLISON P HAWKES,EMILY E GOSCHE,PETER W VELLMAN,NEALE R LANGE,KRISTIN M SALOTTOLO,RAYMOND CONIGLIO,CHARLES W MAINS. The impact of changing work schedules on American firefighters’ sleep patterns and well-being. Signa Vitae. 2015. 10(1);25-37.
1. Harvey B. Firefighter Sleep Deprivation in the Raleigh (NC) Fire Department: An Objective Test. Fire Eng 2013 Feb 1.
2. Kim KH, Kim JW, Kim SH. Influences of Job Stressors on Psychosocial Well-being, Fatigue and Sleep Sufficiency among Firefighters. Korean J Occup Environ Med 2006 Sep 1;18(3):232–45.
3. Domrachev AA, Savchenkov YI, Mikhailova LA. Some Personality Characteristics of Fire Service Specialists under Conditions of Prolonged Intense Workloads. Hum Physiol 2004 Sep 1;30(5):581–4.
4. Murphy SA, Beaton RD, Cain K, Pike K. Gender Differences in Fire Fighter Job Stressors and Symptoms of Stress. Women Health 1995;22(2):55–69.
5. Knauth P. Changing schedules: Shiftwork. Chronobiology International [serial online] 1997 [cited 2013 Oct 1];Vol. 14 No. 2:159-71. Available
6. James Clack. The management effects of firefighters working a consecutive 48-hour shift. An applied research project submitted to the National Fire Academy as part of the Executive Fire Office Program. 2003 Feb.
7. Downey Firemen’s Association. Proposal for the 48/96 work schedule [serial online]. 2008. Available from: URL:http://www.dfalocal3473.org/4896.doc
8. Dillman DA. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. New York: Wiley; 1978.
9. Johns M. 1997 Version of ESS [serial online]. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. [cited 2013 Oct 20]. Available from: URL:http://epworthsleepinessscale.com/1997-version-ess/
10. Johns M, Hocking B. Excessive daytime sleepiness: daytime sleepiness and sleep habits of Australian workers. Sleep 1997;20(10):844–9.
11. Kristensen TS, Borritz M, Villadsen E, Christensen KB. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work Stress 2005;19(3):192–207.
12. Yeh WY, Cheng Y, Chen CJ, Hu PY, Kristensen TS. Psychometric properties of the chinese version of copenhagen burnout inventory among employees in two companies in Taiwan. Int J Behav Med 2007 Sep 1;14(3):126–33.
13. Milfont TL, Denny S, Ameratunga S, Robinson E, Merry S. Burnout and Wellbeing: Testing the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory in New Zealand Teachers. Soc Indic Res 2008 Oct 1;89(1):169–77.
14. Dinges DF, Pack F, Williams K, Gillen KA, Powell JW, Ott GE, et al. Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per night. Sleep 1997 Apr;20(4):267–77.
15. Williamson AM, Feyer AM. Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occup Environ Med 2000 Oct;57(10):649–55.
16. Drummond SPA, Paulus MP, Tapert SF. Effects of two nights sleep deprivation and two nights recovery sleep on response inhibition. J Sleep Res 2006 Sep;15(3):261–5.
17. Takeyama H, Itani T, Tachi N, Sakamura O, Murata K, Inoue T, et al. Effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters during night duty. Ergonomics 2005;48(1):1–11.
18. Takeyama H, Kubo T, Itani T. The Nighttime Nap Strategies for Improving Night Shift Work in Workplace. Ind Health 2005;43(1):24–9.
19. Shakespeare-Finch J, Smith S, Obst P. Trauma, coping resources, and family functioning in emergency services personnel: A comparative study. Work Stress 2002;16(3):275–82.
20. Poston WS, Haddock CK, Jahnke SA, Jitnarin N, Day RS. An examination of the benefits of health promotion programs for the national fire service. BMC Public Health 2013 Sep 5;13(1):805.
21. Haddock CK, Jahnke SA, Poston WSC, Jitnarin N, Kaipust CM, Tuley B, et al. Alcohol use among firefighters in the Central United States. Occup Med Oxf Engl 2012 Dec;62(8):661–4.
22. Hawkes A. Evaluation of the 48-96 Schedule for West Metro Fire Rescue. 2006.
23. Fahy RF. US firefighter fatalities due to sudden cardiac death, 1995-2004. National Fire Protection Association; 2005.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index The CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool is an online resource that can quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.
IndexCopernicus The Index Copernicus International (ICI) Journals database’s is an international indexation database of scientific journals. It covered international scientific journals which divided into general information, contents of individual issues, detailed bibliography (references) sections for every publication, as well as full texts of publications in the form of attached files (optional). For now, there are more than 58,000 scientific journals registered at ICI.
Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization established in 2002 and it works in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the Foundation are to promote and develop health education and research programs.
Scopus: CiteScore 0.5(2021) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Embase Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE), produced by Elsevier, is a biomedical and pharmacological database of published literature designed to support information managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatory requirements of a licensed drug.