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Open Access

Intracoronary administration of levosimendan in patients with acute coronary syndromes and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery


1Anesthesiology Unit, Cito Clinic Split

2 Department of Anesthesiology, Reanimatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital Split

3 Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Split

DOI: 10.22514/SV132.112017.3 Vol.13,Issue 2,November 2017 pp.25-28

Published: 06 November 2017

*Corresponding Author(s): MLADEN CAREV E-mail:


In cardiac surgery patients, intracoronary (IC) administration of levosimendan can provide optimal drug spread, enabling ef-fective manifestation of favorable drug effects and avoiding potentially harm-ful systemic hypotension. This could be beneficial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with decreased left ventricular ejec-tion fraction (LVEF). We present ten cases of IC administration of levosimendan in ACS manifested as ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST segment el-evation myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris. All patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) sur-gery, performed as an “off-pump” or “on-pump”/“off-clamp” procedure (latter one with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass on the beating heart). Levosimendan was ad-ministered as an IC bolus (125-250 μg) in each coronary artery graft (2-3 grafts). In-travenous (IV) levosimendan infusion con-tinued (0.1-0.2 μg•kg-1•min-1) after graft placements (24-48 h), with IV infusion of norepinephrine (0.1 mg•ml-1), if needed. Cardiac function was assessed using LVEF (%) (Teicholz), thermodilution cardiac in-dex (CI) (ml•m-2), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (dynes•sec•cm-5). Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-ranks test [presented as median (MED) with interquartile range (IQR)] indicated a sig-nificant difference between preoperative vs. immediate postoperative CI, SVR, and LVEF in all cases [2.2 (1.9-2.5) vs. 3.1 (2.9-3.4) ml•m-2, 1173.0 (1062.7-1278.2) vs. 882.5 (763.5-993.0) dynes•sec•cm-5, 44.5 (36.0-46.7) vs. 53.5 (45.7-59.2) %, respec-tively] (P=0.005), i.e. IC administration of levosimendan was associated with prompt improvement of intraoperative hemody-namics and cardiac contractility. IC ad-ministration of levosimendan may be a promising alternative method for improv-ing decreased cardiac function in acute cardiac ischemia, besides necessary surgi-cal revascularization.


levosimendan, intracoronary, acute coronary syndromes, CABG surgery 

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VJERA MARINOV,NENAD KARANOVIC,MLADEN CAREV,CRISTIJAN BULAT,DUBRAVKA KO CEN,MIHAJLO LOJPUR,ZDENKO COVIC,BOZENA IVANCEV,ZVONIMIR PARCINA. Intracoronary administration of levosimendan in patients with acute coronary syndromes and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Signa Vitae. 2017. 13(2);25-28.


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