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Administration of protein C concentrates in patients without congenital deficit: a systematic review of the literature


1,Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele

DOI: 10.22514/SV82.102013.2 Vol.8,Issue 2,October 2013 pp.15-19

Published: 17 October 2013

*Corresponding Author(s): GIOVANNI LANDONI E-mail:


Endogenous protein C levels are frequently decreased in septic patients, probably due to increased conversion to activated protein C. Protein C levels inversely correlate with morbidity and mortality of septic patients regardless of age, infecting microorganisms, presence of shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, degree of hypercoagulation, or severity of illness. Taken together, these considerations suggest a strong correlation between protein C pathways and survival from severe sepsis/septic shock, and reinforce the rationale for the attempts to normalize plasma activity of protein C to improve survival, hamper coagulopathy, and modulate inflammation. We therefore conducted a systematic review of all manuscripts describing protein C concentrates administration in adult and pediatric populations. We identified 28 studies, for a total of 340 patients, 70 of whom died (20.6%). Septic patients were the most represented in this review of case reports and case series. In the majority of these patients sepsis was associated with meningitis, purpura fulminans or disseminated intravas-cular coagulation. No bleeding complications related to the study drug were reported and most studies underlined norma-lization of inflammatory markers and of coagulation abnormalities. We conclude that protein C concentrate is an attractive option in septic patients (especially those with meningitis, purpura fulminans, or disseminated intravascular coagulation) and that its cost-benefit ratio must be studied with a large multicenter randomized control trial, possibly including also high risk patients with septic shock and multiple organ failure.


protein C zymogen, blee-ding, amputations, intensive care, critical care

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SIMONA SILVETTI,MARTINA CRIVELLARI,MARTA MUCCHETTI,DAIANA TADDEO,ANNALISA FRANCO,GIOVANNI LANDONI,ALBERTO ZANGRILLO. Administration of protein C concentrates in patients without congenital deficit: a systematic review of the literature. Signa Vitae. 2013. 8(2);15-19.


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