Article Data

  • Views 3167
  • Dowloads 329

Original Research

Open Access

Measuring Family-centered Care in Intensive Care Units: Developing and Testing Psychometric Properties

  • Hasanali Jafarpoor1
  • Parvaneh Vasli1
  • Houman Manoochehri1
  • Farid Zayeri2

1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2Proteomics Research Center and Department of Biostatistics, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2020.16.0047 Vol.16,Issue 2,October 2020 pp.82-91

Published: 28 October 2020

*Corresponding Author(s): Parvaneh Vasli E-mail:


Background: The availability of a valid scale to measure family-centered care (FCC) in intensive care units (ICUs) is of utmost importance. Purpose: the present study aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of a new tool for measuring FCC in ICUs from the perspectives of patients’ family members. Method: This methodological study was conducted from May 2018 to November 2019 at two Iranian universities of medical sciences. The scale items were thus designed based on the integration of the findings of a qualitative study and the results of a literature review. Then, face validity and content validity of the given scale were assessed. A total number of 204 and 203 family members of patients admitted to ICUs were recruited through convenience sampling method to examine construct validity via exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The data were also analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 25) and AMOS software. The reliability of this scale was ultimately tested using Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest correlation. Results: In the initial design, a 35-item scale was obtained. As face validity and content validity were determined, the number of items reduced to 26 cases. Following exploratory factor analysis, a 20 item scale containing 5 components (factors) including dignity, receiving information, support, family empowerment, and access to the physician, accounting for 63.4% of the total variance of the scale was developed. The reliability of this research tool was found acceptable based on Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient by 0.89 and 0.93; respectively. Conclusions/Implications for Practice: This study concluded with the development of a new scale for measuring FCC in ICUs entitled “FCCS-ICU”. Accordingly, administrators and nurses are suggested to practice it to measure the extent and the manner of FCC implementation in ICUs from the perspectives of patients’ family members.


Family-centered care, Psychometric properties, Measurement, Intensive care unit

Cite and Share

Hasanali Jafarpoor,Parvaneh Vasli,Houman Manoochehri,Farid Zayeri. Measuring Family-centered Care in Intensive Care Units: Developing and Testing Psychometric Properties. Signa Vitae. 2020. 16(2);82-91.


[1] Institute-For-Patient-And Family-Centered-Care. What is patient- and family-centered care. Available: http://wwwipfccorg.

[2] Wells N, Bronheim S, Zyzanski S, et al. Psychometric Evaluation of a Consumer-Developed Family-Centered Care Assessment Tool Matern Child Health J. 2015;19:1899-1909.

[3] Wang WL, Feng JY, Wang CJ, et al. The Chinese family-centered care survey for adult intensive care unit: A psychometric study. Appl Nurs Res. 2016; 29:125-130.

[4] Westbrook K, Grant C, Rafalski E, et al. Patient-family Centred Care: Measuring Perceived Service Quality Following a Critical Care Services Experience. Journal of Health Management. 2015;17:304-315.

[5] Marshall J, Bosco L, Adhikari N, et al. What is an intensive care unit? A report of the task force of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine. Journal of Critical Care. 2017;37:270-276.

[6] Brown S, Rozenblum R, Aboumatar H, et al. Defining Patient and Family Engagement in the Intensive Care Unit. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2015;191:358-360.

[7] Herbst L, Desai S, Benscoter D, et al. Going back to the ward-transitioning care back to the ward team. Transl Pediatr. 2018;7:314-325.

[8] Owens R, Huynh T, Netzer G. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit in a Model of Family-Centered Care. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2017;28:171-178.

[9] Brown S, Aboumatar H, Francis L, et al. Balancing digital information-sharing and patient privacy when engaging families in the intensive care unit. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016;23:995-1000.

[10] Hwang D, El-Kareh R, Davidson JE. Implementing Intensive Care Unit Family-Centered Care: Resources to Identify and Address Gaps. AACN Advanced Critical Care. 2017;28:148-154.

[11] Al-Motlaq MA, Abuidhail J, Salameh T, et al. Development and validation of an instrument to assess the implementation of family-centred care in traditional open bay Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Early Child Development and Care. 2017;187:168-177.

[12] Asai H. Predictors of nurses’ family-centered care practises in the neonatal intensive care unit. Japan Journal of Nursing Science.2011;8;57-65.

[13] Al-Motlaq MA. Traditional open bay neonatal intensive care units can be redesigned to better suit family centered care application. Journal of Neonatal Nursing. 2018;24:159-162.

[14] Segers E, Ockhuijsen H, Baarendse P, et al. The impact of family centred care interventions in a neonatal or paediatric intensive care unit on parents’ satisfaction and length of stay: a systematic review. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. 2019;50:63-70.

[15] Al-Motlaq MA, Shields L. Family-Centered Care As a Western-Centric Model in Developing Countries. Holistic nursing practice. 2017;31:343-347.

[16] Shields L, Tanner A. Pilot study of a tool to investigate perceptions of familycentered care in different care settings. Pediatric Nursing. 2004;30:189-197.

[17] Curley M, Hunsberger M, Harris S. Psychometric Evaluation of the Family-Centered Care Scale for Pediatric Acute Care Nursing. Nursing Research.2013;62:160-168.

[18] Mitchell M, Burmeister E, Chaboyer W, et al. Psychometrics of the “Family-Centred Care Survey – Adult Scale”. The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine. 2012;2:792-798.

[19] Himuro N, Kozuka N, Mori M. Measurement of family-centred care: translation, adaptation and validation of the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC-56 and -20) for use in Japan. Child Care Health Dev. 2013;39:358-365.

[20] Feeg V, Paraszczuk A, Çavuşoğlu H, et al. How is Family Centered Care Perceived by Healthcare Providers from Different Countries? An International Comparison Study. J Pediatr Nurs. 2016;31:261-276.

[21] Alabdulaziz H, Moss C, Copnell B. Paediatric nurses’ perceptions and practices of family-centred care in Saudi hospitals: A mixed methods study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2017;69:66-77.

[22] Kazer M, Fitzpatrick J. Encyclopedia of nursing research. Springer Pub, 2012.

[23] Polit DF, Yang F. Measurement and the Measurement of Change: A Primer for the Health Professions. Wolters Kluwer, 2016.

[24] Polit D, Beck C. Nursing research : generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia Wolters Kluwer Health, 2017.

[25] Miller L, McIntire S, Lovler R. Foundations of psychological testing: A practical problem. Sage Publications, 2011.

[26] Polit D, Beck C. Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.

[27] Polit D, Beck C, Owen S. Is the CVI an Acceptable Indicator of Content Validity? Appraisal and Recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health. 2007;30:459-647.

[28] Waltz C, Strickland O, Lenz L. Measurement in Nursing and Health Research. Springer Co. 2010.

[29] Munro B, Plichta S, Kelvin E. Statistical methods for health care research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2005.

[30] Hair J, Black W, Babin B, et al. Multivariate data analysis. England and Associated Companies throughout the world, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 2009.

[31] Hooper D, Coughlan J, Mullen M. Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods. 2008;6:53-60.

[32] Burns N, Groves SK. The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012.

[33] Koo T, Li M. A Guideline of Selecting and Reporting Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Reliability Research. J Chiropr Med. 2016;15;155-163.

[34] Lomax R, Schumacker R. A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. psychology press. 2004.

[35] Arslan F, Geckil E, Aldem M, et al. The family-centered care assessment scale: Development and psychometric evaluation in a Turkish sample. J Pediatr Nurs. 2019;48:e35-e41.

[36] Graneheim U, Lundman B. Qualitative Content Analysis In Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures And Measures To Achieve Trustwor-thiness. Nurse Education Today. 2004;24:105-112.

[37] Cunningham B, Rosenbaum P. Measure of processes of care: a review of 20 years of research. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014;56:445-452.

[38] Bandari R, Heravi-Karimooi M, Rejeh N, et al. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. J Nurs Res. 2014;22:259-267.

[39] Midega T, Oliveira H, Fumis R. Satisfaction of family members of critically ill patients admitted to a public hospital intensive care unit and correlated factors. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2019;31:147-155.

[40] Hashim F, Hussin R. Family Needs of Patient Admitted to Intensive Care Unit in a Public Hospital. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;36:103-111.

[41] Ebrahimi H, Sadeghian E, Seyedfatemi N, et al. Contextual factors affecting autonomy for patients in Iranian hospitals: A qualitative study. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2016;21:261-270.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index The CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool is an online resource that can quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.

Index Copernicus The Index Copernicus International (ICI) Journals database’s is an international indexation database of scientific journals. It covered international scientific journals which divided into general information, contents of individual issues, detailed bibliography (references) sections for every publication, as well as full texts of publications in the form of attached files (optional). For now, there are more than 58,000 scientific journals registered at ICI.

Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization established in 2002 and it works in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the Foundation are to promote and develop health education and research programs.

Scopus: CiteScore 1.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Embase Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE), produced by Elsevier, is a biomedical and pharmacological database of published literature designed to support information managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatory requirements of a licensed drug.

Submission Turnaround Time