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Pharmacological Interventions for Post-operative Sore Throat (POST): A Network Meta-analysis

  • Rakan M. AlQahtani1
  • Mohyeldin Abdalla2
  • Yamen Hassan Azzam3
  • Ahmed AbdElhamed Elsherif3
  • Raed Ibrahim Altulayhi4

1Department of Critical care, King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, Riyadh , Saudi Arabia

2Critical care department, Wollongong public hospital, Loftus street, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

3Department of Critical care, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University Medical city, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

4Lecturer at King Saud University department of Pathology, Microbiology unit, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2020.16.0085 Vol.17,Issue 1,January 2021 pp.169-177

Published: 08 January 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Rakan M. AlQahtani E-mail:


Background: To study the efficacy of current post-extubation pharmacologic treatments for postoperative sore throat (POST) prevention. Method: We searched nine databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of post-extubation treatments in POST prevention. A network meta-analysis was used to pool the results. Results: Of the 124 records screened, we included 13 studies with 1820 patients. Ketorolac tromethamine was found to be the most effective with the lowest POST rates (P-score = 0.99), followed by ketamine (P-score = 0.68), amyl-m-cresol (P-score = 0.67), flurbiprofen (P-score = 0.66), benzydamine hydrochloride (P-score = 0.62), magnesium (P-score = 0.33), dexamethasone (P-score = 0.30), and lidocaine (P-score = 0.07). Moreover, the following treatments were found to be significantly effective in reducing POST in comparison to control/placebo treatment: ketorolac tromethamine (OR = 0.11; [95% CI=0.05 – 0.21]) followed by ketamine (OR = 0.32; [95% CI = 0.17 – 0.62]), amyl-m-cresol (OR = 0.32; [95% CI = 0.14 – 0.73]), flurbiprofen (OR = 0.33;[95% CI = 0.13 – 0.81]), and benzydamine hydrochloride (OR = 0.36; [95% CI = 0.24 –0.54]). Conclusion: Ketorolac tromethamine, ketamine, amyl-m-cresol, flurbiprofen, and benzydamine hydrochloride were found to be significantly effective in reducing POST. Moreover, ketorolac tromethamine was the most effective and significantly better than all other treatments in reducing POST rates.


Sore throat, Prevention, Systematic review

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Rakan M. AlQahtani,Mohyeldin Abdalla,Yamen Hassan Azzam,Ahmed AbdElhamed Elsherif,Raed Ibrahim Altulayhi. Pharmacological Interventions for Post-operative Sore Throat (POST): A Network Meta-analysis. SignaVitae. 2021. 17(1);169-177.


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