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Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Intermittent Catheterization Adherence Scale (ICAS): Italian translation, cultural adaptation and validation

  • Giovanni Galeoto1,2
  • Maria Auxiliadora Marquez3,4
  • Lorenza Ottone5
  • Giovanni Sellitto5
  • Francescaroberta Panuccio5
  • Jeronimo Gonzàlez-Bernal4
  • Marco Tofani6
  • Anna Berardi1

1Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy

2IRCSS Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli (IS), Italy

3Universidad Fernando Pessoa-Canarias, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain

4Health Sciences, University of Burgos, 09006 Burgos, Spain

5Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy

6Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Intensive Neurorehabilitation and Robotics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, 00165 Rome, Italy

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2021.145 Vol.18,Issue 2,March 2022 pp.56-62

Submitted: 09 June 2021 Accepted: 20 July 2021

Published: 08 March 2022

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outcome Measures and Assessment Tools in Spinal Cord Injury)

*Corresponding Author(s): Giovanni Galeoto E-mail:


The study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Intermittent Catheteri-zation Adherence Scale (ICAS) in Italian for people with Spina bifida and spinal cord injury. The population consisted of adults who practice self-catheterization, recruited through online questionnaire google docs. The ICAS was translated and culturally adapted following international guidelines. The test was administered together with the Italian version of Qualiveen-30 for quality of life related to practice self-catheterization, Spinal Cord Independence Measure self-report (SCIM-SR) for independence in activities of daily living, Moorong self-efficacy scale (MSES) for self-efficacy. The ICAS was administered two times within a week, in order to assess test-retest reliability. Its psychometric properties were evaluated according to international guidelines. After the translation and cultural adaptation processes, all items were either identical or similar to the 34 study participants. For internal consistency, Cronbach’ alpha showed values of 0.845; has been obtained from the analysis of individual’s answers for each item; interclass correlation coefficient showed values of 0.995; has been obtained from analysis of the answers individuals gave each subscale after a week. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient showed statistically significant correlations; has been obtained for the comparation of ICAS with Qualiveen-30 and SCIM-SR. The validation of ICAS in Italian allows professionals to work with self-catheterization for people with neurological bladder to face psychological barriers before learning about the Clean Intermittent Self Catheterization (CISC), improving patients’ adherence to it. Adherence is the basis of CISC since, if this is not carried out according to the prescription, various types of bladder problems may arise. At the same time, the ICAS can be used for the medical follow-up of people using intermittent self-catheterization techniques and finally for medical research.


Tools; Psychometrics properties; Validity and reliability; Catheterizations techniques; Rehabilitation; Neurological bladder

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Giovanni Galeoto,Maria Auxiliadora Marquez,Lorenza Ottone,Giovanni Sellitto,Francescaroberta Panuccio,Jeronimo Gonzàlez-Bernal,Marco Tofani,Anna Berardi. Intermittent Catheterization Adherence Scale (ICAS): Italian translation, cultural adaptation and validation. Signa Vitae. 2022. 18(2);56-62.


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