Development of a real-time monitoring and detection indoor air quality system for intensive care unit and emergency department
1Iraqi Commission for Computers and Informatics (ICCI), Informatics Institute for Postgraduate Studies (IIPS), 10001 Baghdad, Iraq
2University of Information Technology and Communications (UOITC), 10001 Baghdad, Iraq
DOI: 10.22514/sv.2022.013 Vol.19,Issue 1,January 2023 pp.77-92
Submitted: 30 October 2021 Accepted: 28 December 2021
Published: 08 January 2023
To develop an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) monitoring and detecting system based on a new Internet of Thing (IoT) sensory technology device that incorporated nine recommended indoor pollutants by the academic literature and reliable organizations, such as World Health Organization (WHO), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The pollutants include Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) as well as air humidity and temperature that are used to assess the variety of indoor pollutants and provide a new IAQ pollutants dataset. Besides, the newly developed system provides real-time air quality monitoring, reports the pollutants’ data to a cloud platform (i.e., ThingSpeak), and can trigger early warnings as a service when abnormalities occurred in the air quality index. The system was tested to ensure its conformance to the recommended pollutants by collaborating with surgeons and specializing in IAQ in a hospital surgical intensive care unit (SICU), emergency department (ED), and in the women’s ward, which accommodate patients who are either newly born mothers (in case they need that) or who have had an operation, as well as pregnant patients who need to stay in the hospital to be under the supervision of medical care. Nine pollutants were identified and collected the pollutants dataset and their thresholds that affect the air quality within the hospital facilities and services (SICU, ED) to be used for assessing the effectiveness of the amount, concentration, and diversity of the pollutants. In the SICU, the concentrations of some pollutants were high in the beginning due to the residues of the previous surgery and because of the frequent use of sterilizers to clean and prepare the surgery room. Then, the concentrations of pollutants were moderate, but minutes after the start of the surgical, an increase in CO2 and formaldehyde was observed, which exceeds the threshold limit because of the use of anesthetic gas and sterilization. In the women’s ward, was all concentrations generally moderate except for particles matter PM2.5, and the same context with the 3rd installed location in the pharmacy of ED, most concentrations were moderate, except formaldehyde which exceeded the threshold. “CO” was the highest positive correlated and strongly correlated to “NO2” and that was expected because CO influences the oxidation of NO to NO2. On the contrary, the “CO” had the highest negative correlation with “VOC”, and the “NO2” had the highest negative correlation with “VOC”, chemistry is part of the responsibility for the weak correlation observed between the pollutants.
Indoor air quality; Sensors; Internet of things; Intensive care unit; Emergency department; Monitoring and detection
Noor S. Baqer,Hussein. A. Mohammed,A. S. Albahri. Development of a real-time monitoring and detection indoor air quality system for intensive care unit and emergency department. Signa Vitae. 2023. 19(1);77-92.
 Lasomsri P, Yanbuaban P, Kerdpoca O, Ouypornkochagorn T. ‘A development of low-cost devices for monitoring indoor air quality in a large-scale hospital’, 2018 15th international conference on electrical engineering/electronics, computer, telecommunications and information technology (ECTI-CON). Chiang Rai, Thailand. 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Michalos CA. Air Quality Index (AQI), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. 2014. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_100115 (Accessed: 10 February 2021).
 Pitarma R, Marques G, Ferreira BR. Monitoring indoor air quality for enhanced occupational health. Journal of Medical Systems. 2017; 41: 23.
 Thomas NM, Calderón L, Senick J, Sorensen-Allacci M, Plotnik D, Guo M, Yu Y, et al. Investigation of indoor air quality determinants in a field study using three different data streams. Building and Environment.. 2019; 154: 281–295.
 Rastogi K, Barthwal A, Lohani D. ‘AQCI: an iot based air quality and thermal comfort model using fuzzy inference’, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). Goa, India. 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Ghanizadeh F, Godini H. A review of the chemical and biological pollutants in indoor air in hospitals and assessing their effects on the health of patients, staff and visitors. Reviews on Environmental Health. 2018; 33: 231–245.
 Albahri AS, Albahri OS, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Hashim M, Alsalem MA, et al. Based multiple heterogeneous wearable sensors: a smart real-time health monitoring structured for hospitals distributor. IEEE Access. 2019; 7: 37269–37323.
 Mohammed TJ, Albahri AS, Zaidan AA, Albahri OS, Al-Obaidi JR, Zaidan BB, et al. Convalescent-plasma-transfusion intelligent frame-work for rescuing COVID-19 patients across centralised/decentralised telemedicine hospitals based on AHP-group TOPSIS and matching component. Applied Intelligence. 2021; 51: 2956–2987.
 Albahri OS, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Mohsin AH, Mo-hammed KI, et al. New mhealth hospital selection framework supporting decentralised telemedicine architecture for outpatient cardiovascular disease-based integrated techniques: haversine-GPS and AHP-VIKOR. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing. 2021; 1–21.
 Cornelius K, Kumar NK, Pradhan S, Patel P, Vinay N. ‘An efficient tracking system for air and sound pollution using iot’, 2020 6th international conference on advanced computing and communication systems (ICACCS). Coimbatore, India. 2020. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Gryech I, Ben-Aboud Y, Guermah B, Sbihi N, Ghogho M, Kobbane A. Moreair: a low-cost urban air pollution monitoring system. Sensors. 2020; 20: 998.
 Divya A, Kiruthika R, Gayathri D. ‘Detecting and analysing the quality of air using low cost sensors to reduce air pollution in urban areas’, 2019 IEEE International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). Pondicherry, India. 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Kumar A, Kumari M, Gupta H. ‘Design and analysis of iot based air quality monitoring system’, 2020 International Conference on Power Electronics & IoT Applications in Renewable Energy and its Control (PARC). Mathura, India. 2020. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2020.
 Dong Q, Li B, Downen RS, Tran N, Chorvinsky E, Pillai DK, Zaghloul ME, et al. A cloud-connected NO2 and ozone sensor system for personalized pediatric asthma research and management. IEEE Sensors Journal. 2020; 20: 15143–15153.
 Gnanaraj VV, Ranjana P, Thenmozhi P. Patient monitoring and control system using internet of thing. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering. 2019; 8: 120–123.
 Albahri AS, Alwan JK, Taha ZK, Ismail SF, Hamid RA, Zaidan AA, et al. IoT-based telemedicine for disease prevention and health promotion: state-of-the-art. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. 2021; 173: 102873.
 Napi NM, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri OS, Alsalem MA, Albahri AS. Medical emergency triage and patient prioritisation in a telemedicine environment: a systematic review. Health and Technology. 2019; 9: 679–700.
 Hamid RA, Albahri AS, Albahri OS, Zaidan AA. Dempster-shafer theory for classification and hybridised models of multi-criteria decision analysis for prioritisation: a telemedicine framework for patients with heart diseases. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing. 2021; 1–35.
 Busso IT, Herrera F, Tames MF, Gasquez IG, Camisassa LN, Carreras HA. Quecher method for air microbiological monitoring in hospital environments. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2020; 14: 66–73.
 Hapsari AA, Hajamydeen AI, Vresdian DJ, Manfaluthy M, Prameswono L, Yusuf E. ‘Real time indoor air quality monitoring system based on iot using MQTT and wireless sensor network’, 2019 IEEE 6th Interna-tional Conference on Engineering Technologies and Applied Sciences (ICETAS). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2019. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Yogalakshmi KP, Sudha R, Selvam C. ‘Design and prototype imple-mentation of indoor air quality monitoring using lonworks technology’, 2015 IEEE Technological Innovation in ICT for Agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR). Chennai, India. 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Capolongo S, Settimo G, Gola M, eds. Indoor air quality in healthcare facilities. Cham: Springer. 2017.
 US EPA. Criteria Air Pollutants US EPA. 2021. Available at: https: //www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants (Accessed: 16 May 2021).
 Bang CS, Lee K, Choi JH, Soh JS, Hong JY, Baik GH, et al. Ambient air pollution in gastrointestinal endoscopy unit; rationale and design of a prospective study. Medicine. 2018; 97: e13600.
 Mohsin AH, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Albahri OS, Alsalem MA, et al. Real-time remote health monitoring systems using body sensor information and finger vein biometric verification: a multi-layer systematic review. Journal of Medical Systems. 2018; 42: 238.
 Albahri OS, Al-Obaidi JR, Zaidan AA, Albahri AS, Zaidan BB, Salih MM, et al. Helping doctors hasten COVID-19 treatment: towards a rescue framework for the transfusion of best convalescent plasma to the most critical patients based on biological requirements via ml and novel MCDM methods. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 2020; 196: 105617.
 Albahri OS, Albahri AS, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Alsalem MA, Mohsin AH, et al. Fault-tolerant mhealth framework in the context of iot-based real-time wearable health data sensors. IEEE Access. 2019; 7: 50052–50080.
 Kalid N, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Salman OH, Hashim M, Albahri OS, et al. Based on real time remote health monitoring systems: a new approach for prioritization “large scales data” patients with chronic heart diseases using body sensors and communication technology. Journal of Medical Systems. 2018; 42: 69.
 Talal M, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Alamoodi AH, Albahri OS, Alsalem MA, et al. Smart home-based iot for real-time and secure remote health monitoring of triage and priority system using body sensors : multi-driven systematic review. Journal of Medical Systems. 2019; 43: 42.
 Asif A, Zeeshan M, Jahanzaib M. Indoor temperature, relative humidity and CO2 levels assessment in academic buildings with different heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. Building and Environment. 2018; 133: 83–90.
 Raza M, Singh N, Khalid M, Khan S, Awais M, Hadi MU, et al. Challenges and Limitations of Internet of Things Enabled Healthcare in COVID-19. IEEE Internet of Things Magazine. 2021; 4: 60–65.
 Somasundaram R, Thirugnanam M. Review of security challenges in healthcare internet of things. Wireless Networks. 2021; 27: 5503–5509.
 Mumtaz R, Zaidi SMH, Shakir MZ, Shafi U, Malik MM, Haque A, et al. Internet of things (Iot) based indoor air quality sensing and predictive analytic—a covid-19 perspective. Electronics. 2021; 10: 184.
 Marques G, Roque Ferreira C, Pitarma R. A system based on the internet of things for real-time particle monitoring in buildings. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15: 821.
 Sreevas R, Shanmughasundaram R, VRL S V. Development of an iot based air quality monitoring system. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering. 2019; 8: 23–28.
 Gomes JB, Rodrigues JJ, Rabêlo RA, Tanwar S, Al‐Muhtadi J, Kozlov S. A novel internet of things-based plug-and-play multigas sensor for en-vironmental monitoring. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. 2021; 32: e3967.
 Cheng H, Wang L, Wang D, Zhang J, Cheng L, Yao P, et al. Bio3Air, an integrative system for monitoring individual-level air pollutant exposure with high time and spatial resolution. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2019; 169: 756–763.
 Soldatova LN, Sansone SA, Stephens SM, Shah NH. Selected papers from the 13th annual bio-ontologies special interest group meeting. Journal of Biomedical Semantics. 2011; 2: 1–5.
 International Organization for Standardization. ISO-11.080.01 Steriliza-tion and disinfection in general. 2018. Available at: https://www.iso. org/ics/11.080.01/x/ (Accessed: 30 October 2020).
 Yang C, Chen S, Den W, Wang Y, Kristiani E. Implementation of an intelligent indoor environmental monitoring and management system in cloud. Future Generation Computer Systems. 2019; 96: 731–749.
 Oh HJ, Jeong NN, Sohn JR, Kim J. Personal exposure to indoor aerosols as actual concern: perceived indoor and outdoor air quality, and health performances. Building and Environment. 2019; 165: 106403.
 Stamp S, Burman E, Shrubsole C, Chatzidiakou L, Mumovic D, Davies M. Long-term, continuous air quality monitoring in a cross-sectional study of three UK non-domestic buildings. Building and Environment. 2020; 180: 107071.
 Kalia P, Ansari MA. IOT based air quality and particulate matter concentration monitoring system. Materials Today. 2020; 32: 468–475.
 Jaimini U, Banerjee T, Romine W, Thirunarayan K, Sheth A, Kalra M. Investigation of an indoor air quality sensor for asthma management in children. IEEE Sensors Letters. 2017; 1: 1–4.
 Totaro M, Costa AL, Casini B, Profeti S, Gallo A, Frendo L, et al. Microbiological air quality in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of surgical and intensive care areas: the application of a disinfection procedure for dehumidification devices. Pathogens. 2019; 8: 8.
 Maier A, Sharp A, Vagapov Y. ‘Comparative analysis and practical implementation of the ESP32 microcontroller module for the internet of things’ , 2017 Internet Technologies and Applications (ITA). Wrexham, UK. 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Foken T, Bange J, Temperature Sensors, In Foken T. (ed.) Springer Handbook of Atmospheric Measurements (pp.183–208), Springer: Cham, 2021.
 Liu M, Zhang C. Design of formaldehyde concentration detection system for smart home based on STM32 controller. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2021; 1780: 012021.
 Olalekan OB. Development of a sim800l based reprogrammable house-hold smart security system with recipient phone call alert audio synthesis view project atmospheric effects on solar power generation view project blessed olalekan oyebola gateway (ict) polytechnic saapad. International Journal of Computer Engineering In Research Trends. 2017; 4: 15–20.
 Sarhan QI. ‘Arduino based smart home warning system’, 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Control Science and Systems Engineering (ICCSSE). Beijing, China. 2020. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2020.
 Thirumalai C, Aarthi B, Abhinaya V. ‘Analyzing the forest fire using correlation methods’, 2017 International conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). Coimbatore, India. 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA. 2019.
 Schober P, Boer C, Schwarte LA. Correlation coefficients: appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2018; 126: 1763–1768.
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.
Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index The CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool is an online resource that can quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.
Index Copernicus The Index Copernicus International (ICI) Journals database’s is an international indexation database of scientific journals. It covered international scientific journals which divided into general information, contents of individual issues, detailed bibliography (references) sections for every publication, as well as full texts of publications in the form of attached files (optional). For now, there are more than 58,000 scientific journals registered at ICI.
Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization established in 2002 and it works in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the Foundation are to promote and develop health education and research programs.
Scopus: CiteScore 1.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
Embase Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE), produced by Elsevier, is a biomedical and pharmacological database of published literature designed to support information managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatory requirements of a licensed drug.