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Original Research

Open Access

One year health-related quality of life after discharge: a prospective cohort study among COVID-19 ICU survivors

  • Valery Likhvantsev1,2
  • Giovanni Landoni3,4,*,
  • Artem Kuzovlev1
  • Sergey Perekhodov5
  • Nikolay Chaus5
  • Maddalena Tucci4
  • Mary Ann Belli4
  • Kristina Kadantseva1,6
  • Lubov Ermokhina1,5
  • Mikhail Yadgarov1
  • Levan Berikashvili1
  • Valery Subbotin6
  • Nataly Melnikova5
  • Andrey Grechko1

1Department of clinical trials, Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of Reanimatology and Rehabilitation, 107031 Moscow, Russia

2Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, First Moscow State Medical University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

3Faculty of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy

4Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy

5Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, V. Demikhov Municipal Hospital No.68, 109263 Moscow, Russia

6Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, A. Loginov Moscow Clinical Scientific Center, 111123 Moscow, Russia

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2022.036 Vol.19,Issue 2,March 2023 pp.55-65

Submitted: 10 February 2022 Accepted: 23 March 2022

Published: 08 March 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Giovanni Landoni E-mail:


Considering the paucity of data on long-term Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) intensive care unit (ICU) survivors, we present one-year follow-up results on patients’ HRQoL and compare them with those of the already reported 6-month follow-up. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in COVID-19 ICU between March and June 2020. A HRQoL analysis was performed six months and 1 year after discharge by means of a short-form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Hospital mortality in 403 ICU COVID-19 patients was 44.9%; further 4.0% died between hospital discharge and 6-month follow-up and only 0.5% died in the next six months. The median physical component of HRQoL increased from 43.7 (interquartile range (IQR): 31.7–52.7) at 6 months to 46.0 (IQR: 38.0–53.0) 1 year after hospital discharge (p = 0.007). In multivariable regression analysis, age >50 (odds ratio (OR) 0.270) and female sex (OR 0.144) were independently associated with reduced physical HRQoL 1 year after discharge. The median mental component of HRQoL increased from 50.6 (IQR: 42.0–55.8) at 6 months to 53.0 (IQR: 47.0–56.0) 1 year after discharge (p = 0.035), with no significant predictors. Increased HRQoL was associated with an improvement in patients’ physical status, role functioning, emotional well-being (all p < 0.001) and social functioning (p = 0.007). ICU COVID-19 patients’ HRQoL slightly improved 1 year after discharge, when compared to results of the 6-month follow-up. Medications received during ICU stay had no effect on physical or mental HRQoL.


COVID-19 survivors; Quality of life; SARS-CoV-2; SF-36 scale; Long-term outcome; Intensive care

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Valery Likhvantsev,Giovanni Landoni,Artem Kuzovlev,Sergey Perekhodov,Nikolay Chaus,Maddalena Tucci,Mary Ann Belli,Kristina Kadantseva,Lubov Ermokhina,Mikhail Yadgarov,Levan Berikashvili,Valery Subbotin,Nataly Melnikova,Andrey Grechko. One year health-related quality of life after discharge: a prospective cohort study among COVID-19 ICU survivors. SignaVitae. 2023. 19(2);55-65.


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