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Predictors of non-invasive ventilation failure in adult patients with cardiac dysfunction presenting with community-acquired pneumonia: an Egyptian multicenter prospective study

  • Mohamed Laimoud1,*,
  • Muhammed Abdel-Moaty2
  • Mohamed Elshobary3
  • Thanaa Mohamed4
  • Walid Ahmed1

1Critical Care Medicine department, Cairo University,12613 Cairo, Egypt

2Internal Medicine department, Suez Canal hospital, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt

3Internal Medicine department, Mabara Misr Elkadima hospital, 11559 Cairo, Egypt

4Pulmonary medicine department, Mabara Misr Elkadima hospital, 11559 Cairo, Egypt

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2022.078 Vol.19,Issue 3,May 2023 pp.121-131

Submitted: 14 June 2022 Accepted: 11 August 2022

Published: 08 May 2023

*Corresponding Author(s): Mohamed Laimoud E-mail:


Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) might be successful if carefully selected in adult patients with cardiac dysfunction presenting with community-acquired pneumonia. The main objective of this study was to identify the early predictors of NIV failure. Adult patients with left ventricle ejection fraction (LV EF) <50% admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with community-acquired pneumonia and acute respiratory failure were enrolled in this multicenter prospective study after obtaining informed consents (study registrationID: ISRCTN14641518). Non-invasive ventilation failure was defined as the requirement of intubation after initiation of NIV. All patients were assessed using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores at admission, while their Heart rate Acidosis Consciousness Oxygenation and Respiratory rate (HACOR) and lung ultrasound (LUS) scores in addition to blood lactate were assessed at NIV initiation and 12 and 24 hours later. A total of 177 patients were prospectively enrolled from February 2019 to July 2020. Of them, 53 (29.9%) had failed NIV. The mean age of the study cohort was 64.1± 12.6 years, with a male predominance (73.4%) and a mean LV EF of 36.4 ± 7.8%. Almost 55.9% of the studied patients had diabetes mellitus, 45.8% had chronic systemic hypertension, 73.4% had ischemic heart disease, 20.3% had chronic kidney disease, and 9.6% had liver cirrhosis. No significant differences were observed between the NIV success and NIV failure groups regarding underlying morbidities or inflammatory markers. Patients who failed NIV were significantly older and had higher mean SOFA and APACHE II scores than those with successful NIV. We also found that NIV failure was associated with longer ICU stay (p < 0.001), higher SOFA scores at 48 hours (p < 0.001) and higher mortality (p < 0.001) compared with the NIV success group. In addition, SOFA (Odds Ratio (OR): 4.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.59–7.88, p < 0.001), HACOR (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 0.97–4.18, p = 0.036) and LUS (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.014–1.106, p = 0.027) scores and blood lactate levels (OR: 9.35, 95% CI: 5.32–43.26, p < 0.001) were independent factors for NIV failure. High initial HACOR and SOFA scores, persistent hyperlactatemia and non-decrementing LUS score were associated with early NIV failure in patients with cardiac dysfunction presenting with community-acquired pneumonia, and could be used as clinical and paraclinical variables for early decision making regarding invasive ventilation.


Non-invasive ventilation; Pneumonia; Lung ultrasound (LUS); Lactate; HACOR score; APACHE II; SOFA score; Heart failure

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Mohamed Laimoud,Muhammed Abdel-Moaty,Mohamed Elshobary,Thanaa Mohamed,Walid Ahmed. Predictors of non-invasive ventilation failure in adult patients with cardiac dysfunction presenting with community-acquired pneumonia: an Egyptian multicenter prospective study. Signa Vitae. 2023. 19(3);121-131.


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