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Original Research

Open Access

Predictive value of right heart contrast echocardiography combined with STAF in cardioembolism

  • Junjie Wen1
  • Dingming Liu1
  • Hua Chen1
  • Zhan Su2,*,

1Department of Cardiovascular, Guang’an People’s Hospital, 638000 Guang’an, Sichuan, China

2Ultrasonic Medical Center, Guang’an People’s Hospital, 638000 Guang’an, Sichuan, China

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2024.004 Vol.20,Issue 1,January 2024 pp.84-93

Submitted: 30 June 2023 Accepted: 22 November 2023

Published: 08 January 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Zhan Su E-mail:


Cardioembolism (CE) is a prevalent cerebrovascular disease in clinical practice. This study aims to assess the predictive efficacy of right heart contrast echocardiography combined with the Score for Targeting Atrial Fibrillation (STAF) for diagnosing CE. A total of 149 patients with CE and 93 patients with non-CE (NCE) were classified into the study group and control group, respectively, and their data were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent right heart contrast echocardiography and STAF assessment, and comparative analyses between the groups were performed. In addition, the predictive potential of combining right heart contrast echocardiography with STAF for CE was evaluated, and the CE patients underwent a one-year follow-up to assess survival and prognostic factors. The results of this study showed that patients in the CE group had higher incidences of grade 1 + 2 + 3 right-to-left shunt, patent foramen ovale (PFO) positivity, greater foramen ovale length, larger shunt inner diameter, and higher STAF score compared to the NCE group (p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the predictive values for CE, in terms of right-to-left shunt grade, PFO positivity, foramen ovale length, shunt inner diameter, and area under the curve (AUC) for STAF, were 0.582, 0.570, 0.679, 0.808 and 0.750, respectively. The combined AUC value for all these parameters was 0.905. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that atrial fibrillation, total cholesterol and fibrinogen were not prognostic factors in CE patients (p > 0.05), whereas National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score, PFO positivity, foramen ovale length and STAF at admission were prognostic factors (p < 0.05). Therefore, combining right heart contrast echocardiography with STAF may enhance the predictive efficacy for CE.


Right heart contrast echocardiography; Score for the targeting of atrial fibrillation; Cardioembolism; Predictive value

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Junjie Wen,Dingming Liu,Hua Chen,Zhan Su. Predictive value of right heart contrast echocardiography combined with STAF in cardioembolism. Signa Vitae. 2024. 20(1);84-93.


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