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Original Research

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Blood glucose control in acute stroke patients under total energy restriction with different carbohydrate intake and SGLT2 inhibitors availability: a retrospective cohort study

  • Takahisa Mori1,*,
  • Testundo Yano1
  • Kazuhiro Yoshioka1
  • Yuichi Miyazaki1

1Department of Stroke Treatment, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, 247-8533 Kamakura, Japan

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2024.052 Vol.20,Issue 5,May 2024 pp.8-16

Submitted: 10 November 2023 Accepted: 26 December 2023

Published: 08 May 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Takahisa Mori E-mail:


Hyperglycemia in acute stroke patients worsens neurological outcomes. However, effective and safe management during the acute stage has not been established. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effect of medications and nutrition therapy on blood glucose control in three cohorts with different carbohydrate content and availability of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) to identify the current optimal treatment for acute-stage hyperglycemia. We retrospectively studied patients with acute stroke admitted to our hospital between 2011 and 2019. We divided the study period into three periods as follows: traditional (Td, 2011–2013), transition (Ts, 2013–2014), and novel (N, 2014–2019). To evaluate glucose-lowering efficacy and safety, we included conscious patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, blood glucose levels ≥11.1 mmol/L, normal renal function at admission, oral diet and medications, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) test on day 7. We performed total energy restriction (TER) in each period with different carbohydrate contents: 60% in Td, 40% in Ts, and N. The attending physicians chose glucose-lowering medications. SGLT2is were available in the N period only. Our target FBG was <7 mmol/L by day 7. The 26, 22 and 36 patients were enrolled in the Td, Ts and N periods. The blood glucose levels significantly decreased by day 7 in all periods. The target FBG was achieved in 30.8% of Td patients, 31.8% of Ts patients, and 72.2% of N patients. The N period had the highest population of achieving the target FBG. The 40%-carbohydrate diet based on TER plus SGLT2is was the most effective way to lower blood glucose levels. The N period had the highest population of positive urine ketones. However, no symptomatic ketoacidosis occurred. A 40%-carbohydrate diet based on TER combined with SGLT2is might be a potentially effective and safe treatment for hyperglycemia in acute stroke-conscious patients.


Carbohydrate; Diabetes; Energy restriction, Hyperglycemia; SGLT2; Stroke

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Takahisa Mori,Testundo Yano,Kazuhiro Yoshioka,Yuichi Miyazaki. Blood glucose control in acute stroke patients under total energy restriction with different carbohydrate intake and SGLT2 inhibitors availability: a retrospective cohort study. Signa Vitae. 2024. 20(5);8-16.


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