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Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Enhancing EMS readiness: a pilot evaluation of CPR proficiency and training dynamics among paramedics in Poland

  • Łukasz Maciejewski1
  • Katarzyna Naylor2,*,
  • Konrad Szast3
  • Ahmed M. Al-Wathinani4,*,
  • Mohammed Aljuaid5
  • Krzysztof Goniewicz6

1The Regional Ambulance Service in Lublin, 20-043 Lublin, Poland

2Independent Unit of Emergency Medical Services and Specialist Emergency, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland

3Lab of Specialistic and Tactical Simulation, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland

4Department of Emergency Medical Services, Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz College for Emergency Medical Services, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

5Department of Health Administration, College of Business Administration, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

6Department of Security, Polish Air Force University, 08-521 Deblin, Poland

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2024.063

Submitted: 06 January 2024 Accepted: 25 March 2024

Online publish date: 14 May 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Katarzyna Naylor E-mail:
*Corresponding Author(s): Ahmed M. Al-Wathinani E-mail:


Effective Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is crucial for improving outcomes in cardiac arrest situations. This study aims to assess the proficiency of paramedics in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, Poland, in performing CPR, focusing on compression depth and ventilation techniques. A cohort of 69 paramedics was engaged in this analysis, utilizing an Ambu manikin to simulate CPR scenarios. This setup allowed for a comprehensive assessment of each participant’s technique, focusing on compression depth consistency and the efficiency and accuracy of ventilation techniques. The study revealed that paramedics demonstrated commendable proficiency in chest compression, achieving an average depth of 58.48 mm, which falls within the recommended range of 50 mm to 60 mm. However, there was a notable variation in compression depths, ranging from 47 mm to 72 mm. Additionally, ventilation techniques displayed significant inconsistencies, with 87.4% of ventilations performed below the recommended volume range. Many participants also deviated from the advised compression-to-ventilation ratio, further indicating the need for enhanced guidelines adherence. While paramedics exhibit a strong foundation in CPR techniques, the observed variations and inconsistencies underline the importance of continuous and focused training. This study advocates for the development and implementation of targeted training programs to address these gaps. Such initiatives should reinforce adherence to established CPR guidelines and emphasize integrating realistic simulation experiences to improve overall CPR performance, ultimately contributing to better patient outcomes in emergencies.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Paramedic training; Chest compression; Ventilation techniques; Emergency medical services; Sudden cardiac arrest; CPR effectiveness

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Łukasz Maciejewski,Katarzyna Naylor,Konrad Szast,Ahmed M. Al-Wathinani,Mohammed Aljuaid,Krzysztof Goniewicz. Enhancing EMS readiness: a pilot evaluation of CPR proficiency and training dynamics among paramedics in Poland. Signa Vitae. 2024.doi:10.22514/sv.2024.063.


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