Article Data

  • Views 819
  • Dowloads 107

Original Research

Open Access

In vitro effects of Ganoderic acid A on NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response in caerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells

  • Yuzhou Jin1
  • Jin Huang1,*,
  • Na Ma2,*,

1Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Changzhou No.2 People’s Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, 213161 Changzhou, Jiangsu, China

2Department of Emergency, The Affiliated Changzhou No.2 People’s Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, 213161 Changzhou, Jiangsu, China

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2024.075 Vol.20,Issue 6,June 2024 pp.93-98

Submitted: 26 February 2024 Accepted: 13 May 2024

Published: 08 June 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Jin Huang E-mail:
*Corresponding Author(s): Na Ma E-mail:


This study aimed to investigate Ganoderic acid A’s (GAA) possible effects on inflammation and oxidative stress of caerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells and uncover its effects on acute pancreatitis (AP). A cell model of AP was constructed by treating pancreatic acinar AR42J cells with caerulein. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure cell viability, while Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence assays were used to measure inflammation and oxidative stress. Western blot analysis was used to investigate Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway inhibition, focusing on p65 and NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation states. GAA significantly enhanced cell viability in caerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar AR42J cells. It also significantly reduced AR42J cells’ inflammatory response. Furthermore, GAA treatment mitigated oxidative stress by decreasing Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Lastly, GAA inhibited the NF-κB pathway, as evidenced by decreased p65 and IκBα phosphorylation. By inhibiting NF-B-mediated inflammation, GAA attenuated caerulein-induced AP.


Acute pancreatitis (AP); Ganoderic acid A (GAA); Inflammatory response; Oxidative stress; NF-κB pathway

Cite and Share

Yuzhou Jin,Jin Huang,Na Ma. In vitro effects of Ganoderic acid A on NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response in caerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. SignaVitae. 2024. 20(6);93-98.


[1] Mederos MA, Reber HA, Girgis MD. Acute pancreatitis: a review. JAMA. 2021; 325: 382–390.

[2] Lankisch PG, Apte M, Banks PA. Acute pancreatitis. The Lancet. 2015; 386: 85–96.

[3] Lee PJ, Papachristou GI. New insights into acute pancreatitis. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2019; 16: 479–496.

[4] Siriwardena AK, Jegatheeswaran S, Mason JM; PROCAP investigators. A procalcitonin-based algorithm to guide antibiotic use in patients with acute pancreatitis (PROCAP): a single-centre, patient-blinded, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2022; 7: 913–921.

[5] Poulsen VV, Hadi A, Werge MP, Karstensen JG, Novovic S. Circulating biomarkers involved in the development of and progression to chronic pancreatitis—a literature review. Biomolecules. 2024; 14: 239.

[6] Glaubitz J, Asgarbeik S, Lange R, Mazloum H, Elsheikh H, Weiss FU, et al. Immune response mechanisms in acute and chronic pancreatitis: strategies for therapeutic intervention. Frontiers in Immunology. 2023; 14: 1279539.

[7] Jakkampudi A, Jangala R, Reddy BR, Mitnala S, Nageshwar Reddy D, Talukdar R. NF-κB in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Pancreatology. 2016; 16: 477–488.

[8] Xiang H, Guo F, Tao X, Zhou Q, Xia S, Deng D, et al. Pancreatic ductal deletion of S100A9 alleviates acute pancreatitis by targeting VNN1-mediated ROS release to inhibit NLRP3 activation. Theranostics. 2021; 11: 4467–4482.

[9] Liu Y, Cui H, Mei C, Cui M, He Q, Wang Q, et al. Sirtuin4 alleviates severe acute pancreatitis by regulating HIF-1α/HO-1 mediated ferroptosis. Cell Death & Disease. 2023; 14: 694.

[10] Zeng P, Chen Y, Zhang L, Xing M. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide used for treating physical frailty in China. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. 2019; 73: 179–219.

[11] Bao H, Li H, Jia Y, Xiao Y, Luo S, Zhang D, et al. Ganoderic acid A exerted antidepressant-like action through FXR modulated NLRP3 inflammasome and synaptic activity. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2021; 188: 114561.

[12] Wan B, Li Y, Sun S, Yang Y, LV Y, Wang L, et al. Ganoderic acid A attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice. Bioscience Reports. 2019; 39: BSR20190301.

[13] Pang W, Lu S, Zheng R, Li X, Yang S, Feng Y, et al. Investigation into antiepileptic effect of Ganoderic Acid a and its mechanism in seizure rats induced by pentylenetetrazole. BioMed Research International. 2022; 2022: 5940372.

[14] Szatmary P, Grammatikopoulos T, Cai W, Huang W, Mukherjee R, Halloran C, et al. Acute pancreatitis: diagnosis and treatment. Drugs. 2022; 82: 1251–1276.

[15] Ge P, Luo Y, Okoye CS, Chen H, Liu J, Zhang G, et al. Intestinal barrier damage, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and acute lung injury: a troublesome trio for acute pancreatitis. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2020; 132: 110770.

[16] Zheng S, Ma J, Zhao X, Yu X, Ma Y. Ganoderic Acid A attenuates IL-1β-induced inflammation in human nucleus pulposus cells through inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. Inflammation. 2022; 45: 851–862.

[17] Wen G, Li T, He H, Zhou X, Zhu J. Ganoderic acid A inhibits bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Pharmacology. 2020; 105: 568–575.

[18] Lu X, Xu C, Yang R, Zhang G. Ganoderic acid A alleviates OVA-induced asthma in mice. Inflammation. 2021; 44: 1908–1915.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index The CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool is an online resource that can quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.

Index Copernicus The Index Copernicus International (ICI) Journals database’s is an international indexation database of scientific journals. It covered international scientific journals which divided into general information, contents of individual issues, detailed bibliography (references) sections for every publication, as well as full texts of publications in the form of attached files (optional). For now, there are more than 58,000 scientific journals registered at ICI.

Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization established in 2002 and it works in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the Foundation are to promote and develop health education and research programs.

Scopus: CiteScore 1.0 (2022) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Embase Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE), produced by Elsevier, is a biomedical and pharmacological database of published literature designed to support information managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatory requirements of a licensed drug.

Submission Turnaround Time